Sara and a Social Service Oversight

By Marcia Anderson

A bed bug story comes to my desk from Sara:

“I have been taking care of young people from a social services program for over 11yrs and don’t plan to stop, however, now I have bed bugs in my home that came from one of the residents that I have taken into my home.  The program knew that the young man had a history of transporting bed bugs from home to home but never informed me of this information.  I found out only after my house had become infested.  The young man would go on a home visit every other week to his house and then return to my home.

Bed bug eggs

After the young man came back from one of his home visits he broke down and told me that every time he went on a home visit he would wake up and find bed bugs on him.  The young man was told not to tell anyone. In January, when we picked him up from the home visit we had him put his suitcase in a garbage bag.  Sure enough when we arrived home the suitcase had crawling bed bugs.  Since then, I got a very bad infection from bed bug bites that turned into blisters and sores that were very hard to heal.

I had a pest control come out to my home to confirm that I had bed bugs and I was told to throw out most of my furniture and belongings worth thousands of dollars. It’s going to cost at least $1400 to treat my home.  I had asked the social services program to work with me and a least pay for the treatment because they knew about this young man history and didn’t share it with me before I took him in to live with me. The program only offered me $500.00 for everything

Who can I hold responsible for the cost of treatments and the anguish that I have gone through? What else can I do to protect my family from a reoccurrence?”

Dear Sara,

First, you are doing a great thing for children that really need the help, so keep up the good work. Second, you should not have lost any furniture. It is not hard – just time consuming to control bed bugs. If you were told to discard items from your apartment, you need to discard that pest control company. Only the most infested pieces may need to be discarded, anything else can be heat or steam treated. Next, use encasements on the mattresses and box springs and interceptors under bed and couch legs. Clothes, curtains, and linens can be treated in a clothes dryer set on high to kill both bed bugs and eggs. Continue reading

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Carpet Beetles are Welcome in my House if it Means not Having Bed Bugs!

By Marcia Anderson

Several months ago I received an e-mail from a city resident who was getting bites at night that she thought were from a spider. Large, and itchy, but with a burning sensation that told her they weren’t mosquito bites. The problem escalated until she had over 40 red welts on her legs. “I was getting groups of about 5-20 ‘bites’ every night, and my husband had none, and he wore boxers! Also, after the first few nights, I was wearing heavy sweat pants to bed tucked into my socks, and still found marks! “

Carpet beetles are cariophites, which means they live on dead organic materials

She cleaned and vacuumed everything in the bedroom and changed the sheets, but the next morning she still had a few bites. She then went on the internet, and found that this was NOT the work of a spider, but possibly bed bugs. They quarantined the bedroom after thoroughly cleaning and spraying everything with over-the-counter pesticides, but no evidence of ANY bugs was found. She checked the sheets for blood spots, actual bugs – dead or alive, and shed skins, but found none.

One pest company had given her a quote of $1200 to come and treat for bed bugs, but a second pest company suspected carpet beetles instead of bed bugs due to the fact that the wife was getting the ‘bites’ and the husband was not. Some people are allergic to carpet beetles and some are not, however, almost everyone has some allergy to bed bugs. The pest company arrived, and upon inspection, no bed bugs were found, however, a few dead carpet beetles were discovered.

Just like bed bugs: 1.) carpet beetles are attracted to you when you are sleeping because of the CO2 gas you exhale, 2.) carpet beetles are very shy, so they are hard to find, and 3.) carpet beetles also usually come out in the wee hours of the morning. The difference is: bed bugs bite, but carpet beetles eat natural fibers, like wool blankets, natural fibers and feathers, and do not bite. Continue reading

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Case of the Bed Bugs in the Prosecutor’s Office

Bed bug interceptor placed under chair leg.

By Marcia Anderson

My first bed bugs case as the R2 bed bug specialist was a Prosecutor who called complaining about bites on the legs and arms.

I found out that eight offices in the high rise Manhattan building where the prosecutor office is located had bed bug sightings. None of the rooms where the pests were found were contiguous and sightings were scattered on multiple floors. (Meaning they were probably from multiple sources.)

Bed bugs typically search for a meal in the wee hours of the morning and live within 20 feet of a bed. Well, when bed bugs drop into the Prosecutor’s office, they are forced to adapt their feeding schedule. When they get very, very hungry they are drawn to their favorite food source, human blood, so they come out to feed any time of the day or night.  During our lawyer’s long working hours, the bed bugs were attracted to the carbon dioxide that the lawyer exhaled and the warmth of his body, so the little vampires commenced with their warm meal.

Where were the bed bugs hiding? Envision a visit to the Prosecutors Office: Many of the offices have soft carpets, sofas and cushy chairs. In addition, some offices have tons of papers piled on the desk and files flowing onto other cabinets; the signs of a hard working, successful lawyer.  Those papers and plush materials provide the bed bugs with plenty of places to hide without the worry of being easily seen, vacuumed up or cleaned out. Continue reading

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Bed bugs? | “The Bites are so Itchy, we Scratch until we Bleed!”

By Marcia Anderson

I receive complaints from residents who have, or think they have bed bugs, and are desperately seeking help. These people have exhausted all possible sources of help: landlords, pest control operators, over-the-counter products, and online solutions. Desperate, they contact the EPA, and are referred to a Bed Bug expert in their Region – me. The first thing I do is calm them down and reassure them that there is hope. They can get rid of bed bugs. By sharing this story that crossed my desk, I hope to help others in similar situations.

Sean e-mailed me; “We are convinced we have bed bugs. My wife thinks she found a bed bug. We have read articles on-line, and looked at pictures, and then we sprayed, heated, caulked, washed, dried, and wrapped our mattress and box spring in bed bug cases (encasements). We are getting bitten every night. After thorough inspection we still see nothing. Is it possible they are elsewhere in the house, in our vehicles? Should we spray more? And what brand?”

My follow up call revealed that Sean’s family had moved recently, and the itching continued through the entire move.  Whatever was bothering them had traveled with them. And the problem was becoming unbearable. Had they collected any live bugs?  No. Nor had they seen any of the tell tale signs of bed bugs: shed skins, corpses, blood stains, or droppings on the bed sheets.

Scabies mites burrow into the skin resulting in open sores on hands, wrists, elbows, or anywhere on the body. Scabies is diagnosed through microscopic examination of skin scrapings taken from the affected area.

I told Sean, “From what you describe, and the controls you have put in place, I don’t think you have bed bugs. Let’s try Plan B.”  Was the family being plagued with spiders, carpet beetles, mites?  I suggested he contact the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program at Cornell University.

Sean wrote Cornell, “Marcia Anderson of EPA referred me to you. After describing our situation, Marcia doesn’t think we have bed bugs. We know what they look like, where to find them, and how to get rid of them.  The bites are so itchy, we scratch until we bleed! We have tried numerous anti-itch creams, but none take away the itch!”

Cornell provided some excellent information and recommended a pest control company inspection. Later, a frustrated Sean called me again. ‘Still no bugs but horrid itching.’ I suggested they visit a dermatologist to diagnose the bites.

Sean wrote back; “Marcia, you were right. We thought we had bed bugs, but it turned out to be scabies! We were successfully treated by a dermatologist. My son got them at daycare.”

About the Author: Marcia is the bed bug and vector management specialist for the Pesticides Program in Edison. She has a BS in Biology from Monmouth, second degree in Environmental Design-Landscape Architecture from Rutgers, Masters in Instruction and Curriculum from Kean, and is a PhD in Environmental Management candidate from Montclair – specializing in Integrated Pest Management and Environmental Communications. Prior to EPA, and concurrently, she has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology and Oceanography at Kean University for 14 years.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Environmental Justice Small Grants Making a Big Difference in Local Communities

By Sheila Lewis

You’ve probably heard the saying, “Sleep tight, don’t let the bedbugs bite!” This phrase has taken on new life in Cleveland, which has been plagued by these nasty parasites. Many families in the city are ill-informed about bedbugs, and some people have endangered their health trying to combat infestations with dangerous pesticides.

To address this growing public health concern, the EPA Environmental Justice Small Grants Program awarded the Cleveland Tenants Organization (CTO) $25,000 to educate tenants and landlords about how to prevent and safely control bedbugs. By the time the project is complete, CTO plans to help educate more than 10,000 residents on how to prevent infestations before they start, which, Mike Piepsny, Executive Director of CTO says, “can save a landlord tens of thousands of dollars.”

The CTO grant is one of the 47 awarded in October 2011 by the EPA’s Office of Environmental Justice that is already making a big difference in communities across the country.

Far to the north of Ohio, a grant was awarded to The Zender Group in Anchorage, Ala. to educate and engage tribal leaders and villagers on effective ways to manage solid waste. For many Alaskan tribal communities, open dump sites are the only option for household and commercial wastes. These sites are a threat to public health and increase communities’ risks of contamination from hazardous materials and pathogens.

Since the grant was awarded, the Zender Group has reached almost 100 tribal/native organizations and hosted a tribal summit on solid waste, which was attended by representatives from 20 different tribes.

And, in New York City, WEACT is using their grant to educate residents about the dangers of lead exposure, a toxic metal that is especially dangerous for children and is prevalent in older housing, which is often in low-income communities. The project goal is to provide more than 600 families with information about how to ensure their homes are healthy and safe. The project, explains WEACT’s Ogonnaya Newman, “is an opportunity for engagement, empowerment and education because families are able to identify potential sources of harm and work on proactive strategies to address them.”

Since 1994, the EJ small grants program has provided more than $23 million to fund projects that help protect and improve people’s health and the environment in more than 1,200 communities across the nation.

About the author: Sheila Lewis has dedicated 30 years to federal service and has worked to support community-based efforts since 1999. She currently serves as the Grants Program Manager for the Office of Environmental Justice in Washington, D.C.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Science Wednesday: Don’t wait for Wednesday—Get Science Matters!

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection.Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Aaron Ferster

While “TGISW” (thank goodness it’s Science Wednesday) may never catch on like that more famous exclamation about everybody’s favorite workday, I’ve come to really enjoy my weekly task of getting EPA’s weekly science post ready for Greenversations. Even though we still have another one left before the calendar flips over to 2012, we’ve already shared more “Science Wednesdays” this year than there are actual Wednesdays.

Posts were “tagged” for a diversity of EPA science activities, including sustainability (six posts this year), green chemistry (four posts), clean air research (four posts), women in science (part of the Agency’s month-long activities Celebrating Women in Science during March, 2011), risk assessment (two posts), and a host of other subjects too numerous to fit into a single blog post. We even managed to work in something about bed bugs and a hedgehog!

EPA scientists eager to share insights on their work advancing environmental models launched a series called “Modeling Matters.”

A special thanks to all our readers and commenters, who joined the science “Greenversations” to the tune of some 191 comments.

By now you’ve noticed that we have a lot of science to share, way more that can fit into weekly “Science Wednesday” posts. That’s why I’d like to invite everyone again to sign up for our newsletter, Science Matters.

The December issue includes stories on: EPA efforts to measure sustainability, an environmental model for tracking mercury levels in fish and loons in lakes across New England, news about the latest release of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, a link to a podcast interview about EPA’s hydraulic fracturing study—and more. To have the newsletter delivered right to your inbox, click on the link below and add your e-mail address to the box on the web site: Subscribe to Science Matters.

Until next time—TGISW!

About the Author: Aaron Ferster is the lead science writer in EPA’s Office of Research and Development and the editor or Science Wednesday.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.


Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Science Wednesday:Bed Bugs, Not Just Your Grandparents’ Problem

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Daniel M. Stout

Bed bugs are for everybody, not just for the few. This insect pest has coevolved with humans, following a trail of bites from our prehistoric caves to our modern dwellings. Your grandparents knew this pest and were familiar with methods to cope with its nightly forays into their beds, disturbing their sleep and leaving tell-tale bites.

With the advent of pesticides we were able to gain about a 30 year respite from this nuisance. But the bed bug is back, resurging with a vengeance, and to make matters worse, we have forgotten how to deal with them. Figuratively, we got caught with our bed sheets down.

Bed bugs have become a problem in all 50 states and are being transported nationally on our luggage and personal possessions. In fact, it is reported that 95 percent of professional pest management companies have encountered bed bugs in the past year. And, consumers paid $258 million for bed bug control in 2009.

The problem is so significant that a congressional bed bug forum was convened and the Don’t Let the Bed Bugs Bite Act was proposed. In February 2011 EPA will participate with other federal agencies in the second bed bug summit.

Do you have questions about bed bugs, such as:

  • Are you wondering how this pest resurged?
  • Are you concerned about preventing bed bugs from infesting your home?
  • Do you currently have bed bugs in your home or are you wondering how to avoid bed bugs as you travel?
  • Do you believe bed bugs can jump or fly?
  • Are you curious about what they look like, how to identify them, and how to tell if they are biting you?

Greenversations can help! Send me your questions and share your experiences about bed bugs in the comments below.

About the author: Daniel M. Stout II is an urban entomologist who joined EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory in 1998 and conducts research on the behavior of pesticides, primarily insecticides, following their application in residential environments.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Uninvited Guests

By Lina Younes

Many a night I’ve put my children to bed while saying the rhyme “Night-night, sleep tight. Don’t let the bed bugs bite.” But it wasn’t until recently that I actually saw these little pests when I accompanied a Spanish language TV crew to a residence in Baltimore MD which had a bed bug infestation. The crew was going to interview the owner of the house who had been waging a war against these bugs for over a year. My role was to give tips in Spanish on how to resolve the problem in a manner that would not be harmful to the environment nor human health.

In preparing for the interview, I learned of this growing problem and the difficulties in addressing it properly. These pests cause itchy bites to people and pets alike. While extremely annoying, they are not known for transmitting or spreading disease. EPA recommends using a comprehensive approach to address bed bug infestations Integrated pest management combined with the use of pesticides is a must! However, beware of misleading marketing ploys making false claims which will not solve the problem. If you are to use pesticides, read the label first to make sure the product is identified for use on bed bugs. If these pests are not listed on the label, the product might not effectively treat the infestation. Make sure you apply the appropriate pesticide correctly and that you remove children AND pets from the areas where the pesticides are being applied.

Another thing that I learned is that these pests like to travel! They latch on to suitcases, hence the growing problem plaguing dorms and even the fanciest hotels. You can check the mattress for signs of bed bugs. See some additional tips.

I know when I read about these pests, I start itching all over. I hope that I have at least piqued your curiosity to learn more about the problem. There are cyber tools available on the Internet which will provide information on bed bug reports before booking a hotel room or renting an apartment—a useful tool to avoid bringing these uninvited guests home.

As always, we would like to hear about your experiences dealing with these unwanted critters.

About the author: Lina Younes has been working for EPA since 2002 and chairs EPA’s Multilingual Communications Task Force. Prior to joining EPA, she was the Washington bureau chief for two Puerto Rican newspapers and she has worked for several government agencies.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Los huéspedes que visitan sin invitación

Por Lina Younes

En muchas ocasiones he dicho a mis hijas a la hora de acostarse la rima en inglés– “Night-night, sleep tight. Don’t let the bed bugs bite” que básicamente significa—que duermas bien, pero no dejes que las chinches te piquen. (Bueno, en inglés suena bien al menos.) Sin embargo, no fue hasta hace poco que vi estas plagas cuando acompañé unos periodistas hispanos para filmar un reportaje sobre ese tema en una residencia en Baltimore, MD que tenía un problema de chiches. Los periodistas iban a entrevistar a la dueña de la casa que llevaba casi un año luchando contra estos insectos. Mi función consistía de brindar consejos en español sobre cómo resolver el problema en una manera que no fuera dañina para el medio ambiente ni la salud humana.

Al prepararme para la entrevista, aprendí cuán grave era el creciente problema y las dificultades en paliarlo. Estas plagas ocasionan picaduras muy molestosas en las personas y las mascotas. EPA recomienda un enfoque global para abordar las infestaciones de chinches. ¡El manejo integrado de plagas combinado con el uso de pesticidas es esencial! Sin embargo, preste atención a las campañas de publicidad engañosas que hacen falsas alegaciones que no resolverán el problema. Si va usar plaguicidas, lea la etiqueta primero para asegurarse que el producto indique que se puede utilizar eficazmente para tratar una infestación de chinches. Asegúrese de aplicar el plaguicida de manera correcta y de que no haya niños NI mascotas en las áreas donde los plaguicidas serán aplicados.

Otra cosa que aprendí es que a estas plagas les encanta viajar! Se agarran de las maletas y muebles tapizados. Por dicha razón, en Estados Unidos están apareciendo estas chinches en las camas de dormitorios universitarios y hasta en los hoteles más lujosos. Si mira detenidamente el colchón podrá ver si hay señales de chinches. He aquí algunos consejos adicionales.

Sé que cuando leo un artículo sobre estas chinches de cama, me empieza a picar por todas partes. Espero al menos haberle picado la curiosidad para que aprenda más acerca del tema. Hay herramientas cibernéticas disponibles que le brindaran más información sobre los lugares donde se han registrado infestaciones de chinches antes de hacer reservaciones de hotel o alquilar un apartamento—una herramienta útil para evitar llevar estos huéspedes a su casa sin invitación.

Como siempre, quisiéramos escuchar acerca de sus experiencias con estos insectos indeseables.

Sobre la autor: Lina M. F. Younes ha trabajado en la EPA desde el 2002 y está a cargo del Grupo de Trabajo sobre Comunicaciones Multilingües. Como periodista, dirigió la oficina en Washington de dos periódicos puertorriqueños y ha laborado en varias agencias gubernamentales

Nota del editor: Las opiniones expresadas en Greenversations son del autor del blog. No reflejan la política, respaldo, o acción de la Agencia de Protección Ambiental de EE.UU. (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés). EPA no verifica la exactitud ni la ciencia en el contenido del blog.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.