The Potomac Watershed – From All Sides

By Ellen Schmitt and Susan Spielberger

More often than not, watersheds cross political boundaries.  Take the Potomac River for example.  It drains an area of 14,670 square miles in four states: Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia.  As part of the larger Chesapeake Bay Watershed, the Potomac River delivers a significant amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment to the Chesapeake Bay.

Morning fog over the Potomac River. Photo courtesy of Flickr photographer jm6553 from EPA’s State of the Environment Photo Project

Morning fog over the Potomac River. Photo courtesy of Flickr photographer jm6553 from EPA’s State of the Environment Photo Project

Besides its contribution to downstream nutrient pollution, the Potomac basin itself faces a number of threats to its source water quality. One of these threats is a rapid growth in urban population which accounts for 81% of the basin’s 6.11 million residents, and is expected to grow by more than 1 million people over the next 20 years.

The environmental challenges presented by the Potomac River, as well as other mid-Atlantic waters often require the attention of different EPA programs.   Here’s what two of us do to protect “the Nation’s River” here in EPA, Region 3.

Ellen:

I work in the Drinking Water Branch and we’re working with the Potomac River Basin Drinking Water Source Protection Partnership to protect the river and its tributaries as sources of drinking water.  Protecting the source water in the first place is the best preventative step to providing safe drinking water.   Hand and glove with this are the other usual steps including treatment at water plants, a safe drinking water distribution system, and increasing the awareness of consumers of protecting drinking water sources. This approach makes sense because some substances can’t be removed at water treatment facilities and it’s often much less expensive to treat the water if contaminants are kept out in the first place.  Examples of source water protection activities are: keeping manure from farms out of streams to reduce the potential for pathogens entering the water; having a response plan in the event of a spill of hazardous materials; and working with transportation agencies to reduce the amount of salt spread on the region’s roads during the winter.

The Potomac Partnership is a unique collaboration, comprised of nearly 20 drinking water utilities and government agencies from Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania and DC focusing on source water protection activities addressing agriculture, urban run-off and emerging contaminants.

Susan:

I work in the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division.  In 2010, Congress provided EPA with two million dollars in funding to restore and protect the Potomac Highlands (a part of Appalachia), and EPA selected American Rivers to administer this grant program.  My role in this program is serve as the technical contact for the projects that have been funded – eight of them –  ranging from $150,000 to $300,000, that focus on improving natural resources and socio-economic conditions.

Projects include stream bank restoration in Staunton and Waynesboro, Virginia; land conservation projects in West Virginia and Pennsylvania where parcels with high ecological value are being protected through conservation easements; reclaiming mine land in the Monongahela National Forest by planting  native spruce trees; and constructing a green house/ shade house project in Frostburg, Maryland, on reclaimed mine land.

In selecting projects that will protect and restore the Potomac (as well as other mid-Atlantic waters), we emphasize a strategic approach to conservation – also known as the Green Infrastructure approach.   We emphasize the connectivity of forest “hubs” of high ecological value and their ability to either expand those hubs or connect the hubs together.  This is a more effective way to protect and restore natural systems because it strives to keep important areas intact and to restore ones that are degraded.

 

For more information about the Potomac watershed, check out this State of the Nation’s River Report from the Potomac Conservancy (PDF).  What kinds of activities are happening in the watershed where you live?  How else could it be approached, from all sides?

 

About the Authors: Susan Spielberger and Ellen Schmitt both work out of EPA’s Mid-Atlantic office in Philadelphia, PA.  Susan works in the Environment and Innovation Division in the Office of Environmental Information and Assessment, and Ellen works in the Water Protection Division’s Drinking Water Branch.

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Career Advice from Marco

As an intern for the EPA, I have worked on the reviewing end of grants.  I had no idea how much work went into the grants process, and I have only touched the surface!  I wanted to learn more about the grants process, so I sat down with Marco Santos, Senior Grants Management Specialist for the EPA.

What is your position at the EPA?

I am a Senior Grants Management Specialist.  Grants award money to different State agencies, nonprofits, universities, and tribes, to carry out environmental priorities.  I manage all these types of grants.

Do you have prior work experience that has helped you here?

I had an internship after college working for the D.C. city government with administrating art grants.  I got to see the entire process of how a government agency gives out money to fund projects.  Coming from a political science major, I have a strong policy background, which helps on the job.

What is a typical day like for you?

There is no typical day at the EPA, and it depends on where we are in the fiscal year.  There is a lot of multi tasking.  I work with all of the EPA divisions to make sure we secure what we need to fund grants.  I work with grantees themselves to answer inquiries they may have.  I review proposals, process paper work, draft agreement, clarify administrative requirements, and track money to make sure it is being spent correctly.

What is the best part of your job?

It is rewarding to know I had a small part in contributing to the agency’s goals and missions.  Programs wouldn’t be able to do the work they are supposed to do without grant funds.  I feel a sense of importance because we implement the mission and safeguard the use of taxpayers’ dollars.

Did you always have an interest in the environment?

Yes.  In high school I was very politically savvy.  I was always interested in recycling and was very aware of the environment and was mindful to not be wasteful.  After college there was a job opening at the EPA which combined my interest and educational background. 

What classes did you take in school that you use on the job today?

I have a political science degree.  I took classes on policy and environmental issues in addition to writing and communication classes.  Policy provides a foundation for what I do.  I need to know the laws.

Do you have any advice for kids today who have an interest in protecting our environment?

It is important to be aware of what is going on politically.  Keep up with the news and latest developments in technology. Think outside the box.  Try to expand your experiences and education and be open to new things.  Practice what you preach.  Environmental stewardship starts at home.  Good writing and communication skills are important regardless of where you end up!

Kelly Siegel is a student volunteer in the EPA’s Air and Radiation Division in Region 5, and is currently obtaining her Master’s degree in Urban Planning and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  She has a passion for sustainable development, running, and traveling with friends.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

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Career Advice from Ed

By: Kelly Siegel

In college, I majored in Environmental Economics and had a Business minor.  I always enjoyed my math based classes, and wanted to learn how those courses could transfer to a career at the EPA.  I sat down with Ed Pniak to hear more about his role as a Financial Analyst for the EPA.

What is your position at the EPA?

I am a Financial Analyst, which means I manage grants.  My role is often referred to as a Project Officer. My main responsibilities include overseeing all water grants with Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and projects funded under the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative.

What is a typical day like for you?

Every day I am involved in the grants process, whether that be reviewing, monitoring a current project, or closing out a project. This could involve ensuring a budget for a new grant is fiscally responsible, confirming existing projects are meeting expected milestones, and reviewing final report for deliverables. I’m in constant communication with my state counterparts.

What is the best part of your job?

The balance of being able to manage the EPA’s resources responsibility and to help contribute to EPA’s mission through grant work.

Did you always have an interest in the environment?

No, but I did have an interest in the federal government.  I have always wanted to contribute to public service.  My interest in the environment has grown since being here. 

Do you have prior work experiences that lead you to the EPA.

I have worked in the private sector and for non-profits.  I also worked on a Presidential campaign team.

What classes did you take in school that you use on the job today?

I was an economic major, so I took a variety of economic classes including public sector economics and environment economics.  Every day type classes, such as basic math, business communication and writing and rhetoric are important for the grants process.

Do you have any advice for kids today who have an interest in protecting our environment?

Within the EPA there are a lot of skills and rolls people can play.  People with economics and finance knowledge are needed and fuel environmental protection.  Don’t be discouraged if you are not interested in a direct science.  You can still protect the environment!

Kelly Siegel is a student volunteer in the EPA’s Air and Radiation Division in Region 5, and is currently obtaining her Master’s degree in Urban Planning and Policy at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  She has a passion for sustainable development, running, and traveling with friends.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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It’s All in the Mindset

By Kelly Shenk

At a recent farm tour I was on, a dairy farmer in Augusta County, Virginia said:  “Pollution isn’t related to size, it’s related to mindset.”  And the mindset of many farmers is one of innovation, creativity, and a thirst to find better ways to keep their farms profitable and local waters clean for generations to come.

Farmers compare notes at the Chesapeake Bay Agriculture Networking Forum

Farmers compare notes at the Chesapeake Bay Agriculture Networking Forum

The farm tour was part of the recent Chesapeake Bay Agriculture Networking Forum sponsored by the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley.  It’s my favorite meeting of the year.  It’s a chance for all the grantees who receive funding from the Chesapeake Bay Stewardship Fund to share their successes and lessons learned from their projects to restore polluted waters.  The room was filled with over 100 of the most creative thinkers from State agricultural agencies, conservation districts, non-governmental organizations, farming groups, USDA and EPA — all with a common interest in preserving our agricultural heritage, keeping farmers farming, and having clean local and Bay waters.  We all came to the meeting with the mindset that we can have it all through creativity, innovation, and strong partnerships that help us leverage funding to get the job done.

From all the energized discussions with the grantees and farmers, it was very clear to me that farmers are true innovators and problem solvers.  They have a can-do mindset in figuring out how they can run their business efficiently in a way that is good for clean water and for long-term profitability.  As this grant program has matured, so has our approach.  We are finding that there is no better way to sell farmers on ways to reduce pollution than to have fellow farmers and trusted field experts showing how innovative solutions such as manure injectors, poultry litter-to-energy technologies, and even the tried-and-true practices such as keeping cows out of the streams can keep them viable for generations to come.  I’m confident that this mindset will catch on and that we can achieve our common goals of thriving agriculture and clean waters.

About the Author: Kelly Shenk is the Agricultural Advisor for EPA Region 3.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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Bay Rings Out 2012 with Wave of Good News

By Tom Damm

I didn’t hear Ryan Seacrest mention the Chesapeake Bay as the ball dropped in Times Square Monday night.  But he seemed to be the only one who didn’t have something to say about the Bay as 2012 wound to a close.

Construction Underway on the Moorefield Wastewater Treatment Plant in West Virginia

Construction Underway on the Moorefield Wastewater Treatment Plant in West Virginia. At its opening, it will reduce total nitrogen loading by 90,000 pounds per year and total phosphorus by 93,000 pounds per year to the Chesapeake Bay and local waters.

In December alone, there were Bay-friendly announcements from the District of Columbia and Lancaster and Scranton in Pennsylvania, along with news from West Virginia about a treatment plant that will account for a big chunk of the state’s pollution-cutting pledge.

And it isn’t just the Bay that will benefit from these cork-popping developments.  Local rivers and streams in these communities will also run cleaner as a result.

In Scranton, the U.S. and Pennsylvania announced a settlement with the Scranton Sewer Authority on a long-term solution that will reduce millions of gallons of contaminated stormwater overflows into the Lackawanna River and local streams, all part of the Bay watershed.

In Lancaster, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and EPA announced more than $1.8 million in grants for projects to reduce water pollution and improve habitats.

In the nation’s capital, EPA, the District and DC Water signed a major partnership agreement to include green infrastructure techniques in the city’s steps to control stormwater pollution.

And in West Virginia, it was reported that when the new $40 million Moorefield Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant opens later in 2013, it will gobble up huge amounts of pollutants that are now impacting local water quality and the Bay.

Check out our Chesapeake Bay TMDL web site for more announcements about actions by partners to make the new year a good one for the network of Chesapeake Bay waterways.

About the Author: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

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Recycling as Ritual – Part II

By David Stone

[Continued from yesterday…] Over the past year or so, I was introduced to the tension between the cultures, Native and white, on the basic issue of knowledge. Whose knowledge? To some traditionalist Native intellectuals the standard American education can be seen as an extension of colonization. As a scientific consultant from Tucson, I worked with the administration of the Tohono O’odham Community College to bring green technologies to the Nation, assumed to be a good thing. But my sensitivity was being sharpened as to the exact nature of what I brought and how it would be implemented. Was it a beneficial gift? Would it really help over the long run? Certainly if it involved collaboration then we were at least starting off in a positive way. There are many problems to deal with including the effects of global warming.

From these desert-tempered, mountain-wise people we can learn how to begin facing our daunting array of challenges. From them we learn where to go to find our way again. Go to the land. That is the O’odham way. So we begin with a simple and humble act of paying respect to the land. We begin by cleaning the desert. We stop and stoop and pick up an old liquor bottle half-buried in the sand. Then we repeat this act thousands of times. Others join us. The communities participate. Soon we are processing tons of glass, crushing the discarded bottles with hand tools into aggregate for building. We combine the glass aggregate with waste steel dust and dirty water and an exhaust gas, CO2. We build a bench of this reactive mix and we “sit down on carbon.” We lay a sidewalk and we “step down on global warming.”

In these small symbolic acts, we take a step toward a new, more ecological culture beyond the industrial Iron Age. Through the ritual of picking up bottles, of cleaning the desert, we build a space for a new and strong spirit. That is our simple vision. But it will come in its own way and time. We know only that by healing the land we heal ourselves. This is a good path and will bind us and the land together.

It is the time for the ritual.
To dance, to sing…
so that the earth may be fixed one more time.

Ofelia Zepeda,
Tohono O’odham linguist and poet

About the author: David Stone is an instructor and EPA’s Tribal ecoAmbassador at Tohono O’odham Community College in Sells, Arizona. He has a PhD in Environmental Science.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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Recycling as Ritual – Part I

By David Stone

We rode the rough back roads through the Sonoran Desert in silence with the truck’s bed full of empty, brown glass bottles. They had been easy to collect, thousands lay scattered under the creosote bushes and saguaros, more numerous than rocks at that “party site,” as he called it.

Richard guided the truck through a maze of washed out roads and sometimes along the flat natural washes. He suddenly gave a short laugh and shot me a sideways glance.

“What did you feel out there?”

I was new to the reservation at the time and still unfamiliar with the O’odham ways of thinking and speaking. The question did not make sense to me. We were simply collecting bottles as a source of glass for my recycling project. The bottles would be crushed into aggregate for building products. Before setting out collection bins in the towns we gathered them on our own from the desert. There were plenty out there and Richard knew where to find them.

Almost all are the same, quart-sized beer bottles known as “Qs”, the standard alcoholic drink on the reservation. Alcoholism is prevalent and that is the generator for our caches of glass. I pretended not to notice but pretense is obvious to him and attracts his attention.

“What kind of spirit did you feel there?” he said and looked at me again to see how it registered.

I told him that I did not know what he meant and asked him to tell me what he felt.

“It was a dark spirit. I felt it and it was dark. When I picked up a bottle I wondered about the person who had drunk from it. I wondered about their life, about the bad life path they were on, like I was once. I could feel the pain still in the bottle and I prayed for them.”

After that had sunk in, I asked if what we were doing was good. Should we be going out there? He said without hesitation that we should go, it was good, we were taking something dark and turning it into something strong.

“You see broken glass, David. I see broken dreams. You want to recycle the glass. I want to recycle the broken dreams.”

Bringing in money for jobs, so desperately needed on the rez, is hard for anyone to reject. Toward that goal I wrote grant applications and we were awarded one from the EPA’s Tribal program. Though a white outsider, I became the Tohono O’odham Community College’s official “ecoAmbassador.” My proposal was to recycle glass and mix it with steel dust and carbon dioxide to produce locally-made building products and structures, but this was not a simple task. [To be continued tomorrow…]

About the author: David Stone is an instructor and EPA’s Tribal ecoAmbassador at Tohono O’odham Community College in Sells, Arizona. He has a PhD in Environmental Science.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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Reviving Urban Waters

By Tom Damm

On the grounds of Friends Hospital in northeast Philadelphia a few weeks ago, we got a first-hand look at how funds from EPA’s Urban Waters Program will make a big difference.  This was the first year for the Urban Waters small grant program, and there was keen interest in the $2.7 million that was made available across the country.

Members of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society took us down a winding path to an area where work will occur to clear overgrown brush, prevent existing flooding and improve the flow of a tributary to Tacony Creek.  It’s one of 10 projects that will be done in coordination with a local environmental group to help restore a watershed on the city’s outskirts.

Drew Becher (President, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society), Julie Slavet (Executive Director, Tookany/Tacony-Frankford Watershed Partnership, Inc.), Barbara McCabe (Director of Stewardship, Philadelphia Parks & Recreation, and William C. Early (Deputy Regional Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III) with the Urban Waters small grant “big check” at Friends Hospital in Northeast Philadelphia.

Drew Becher (President, Pennsylvania Horticultural Society), Julie Slavet (Executive Director, Tookany/Tacony-Frankford Watershed Partnership, Inc.), Barbara McCabe (Director of Stewardship, Philadelphia Parks & Recreation, and William C. Early (Deputy Regional Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III) with the Urban Waters small grant “big check” at Friends Hospital in Northeast Philadelphia.

Five days later in Morgantown, West Virginia, there was a similar scene as members of Friends of Deckers Creek described to our Regional Administrator, Shawn M. Garvin, how urban waters funds will be used to prepare for the cleanup of polluted water from an abandoned mine.

And last Friday, we toured the Bellemeade neighborhood in Richmond, Virginia, where urban waters funds will help transform a neglected creek into the spark for a community revival.

Other projects in Baltimore and Philadelphia in our region, as well as many others across the country, are underway to help communities unlock the potential of their waterways and the land around them.  That’s what the Urban Waters program is all about.

Many urban waterways have been left a legacy of pollution by sewage, runoff from city streets and contamination from now abandoned industrial facilities.  Healthy and accessible urban waters can help grow local businesses and enhance educational, economic, recreational, employment and social opportunities in nearby communities.

To read about other urban waters projects and perhaps be inspired to take your own actions, visit http://www.epa.gov/urbanwaters/index.html.

About the Author: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.  Prior to joining EPA, he held state government public affairs positions in New Jersey and worked as a daily newspaper reporter.  When not in the office, Tom enjoys cycling and volunteer work.  Tom and his family live in Hamilton Township, N.J., near Trenton.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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EPA Promotes Citizen Science

By Kevin Kubik

You’ve heard about Citizen Kane…Citizen Soldier…Citizen of the World.  But how about Citizen Science? 

Citizen Science is all the rage.  I read a definition that I like in Wikipedia. According to it, Citizen Science is “The systematic collection and analysis of data; development of technology; testing of natural phenomena; and the dissemination of these activities by researchers on a primarily a vocational basis.” 

Now, that’s a mouthful.  EPA scientists in our region are looking for ways to provide citizen scientists or citizen scientist groups with the means to address environmental issues in their communities.

Just this week, EPA announced the availability of 10 grants ranging from $12,500 to $25,000 for a total of $125,000.  These grants are available to individuals, non-profit and community groups, and to others interested in receiving funding for water and air monitoring projects in New York City.  Projects receiving funding under these grants will be expected to promote a comprehensive understanding of local issues, and identify and support activities that address these issues at the local level. 

Proposed projects must include addressing Environmental Justice issues, and should engage, educate and empower communities.   The closing date and time for submissions is April 20, 2012, 5:00 p.m., EST. The full announcement, guidance outlining the eligibility, purposes, goals and general procedures for application and award are available at http://www.epa.gov/region2/grants/ or through www.grants.gov.

Stay tuned for future efforts on how EPA is helping to empower the new “Citizen Scientists in New York, New Jersey, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

About the Author: Kevin Kubik serves as the region’s Deputy Director for the Division of Environmental Science and Assessment out of EPA’s Edison Environmental Center.  He has worked as a chemist for the Region for more than 29 years in the laboratory and in the quality assurance program.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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Green for Green in the Chesapeake Bay

By Nancy Grundahl

Are you interested in pursuing green streets, green infrastructure and green jobs in your community?  Are you located in the Chesapeake Bay watershed?  If so, you’ll want to read on.

The Chesapeake Bay Trust, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the state of Maryland have unveiled an expanded Green Streets-Green Jobs-Green Towns grant initiative to help cities and towns in the Chesapeake Bay watershed accelerate greening efforts that improve watershed protection, community livability and economic vitality.

More than $400,000 will be awarded this year. For each project, up to $35,000 is available for infrastructure project planning and design, and up to $100,000 for implementation and construction.

The grant program is open to local governments and non-profit organizations in urban and suburban watersheds in the Chesapeake Bay region of Maryland, D.C., Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia.

This is a great opportunity to boost the local economy and protect water resources!

The request for proposals and more information is available on-line at the Chesapeake Bay Trust website. The deadline for applications is March 9, 2012, so don’t wait!

About the author: Nancy Grundahl has worked for the Philadelphia office of EPA since the mid-80’s. Nancy believes in looking at environmental problems in a holistic, multi-media way and is a strong advocate of preventing pollution instead of dealing with it after it has been created. Nancy likes to garden and during the growing season brings flowers into the office. Nancy also writes for the EPA “It’s Our Environment” blog.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

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