A Changing Population – Turkestan Cockroach Overtakes the American Southwest… and Possibly NYC

By Marcia Anderson

New York City isn’t the only place seeing changes in its roach population. (See Immigrant Cockroach found in NYC) In southwestern U.S. cities, the Turkestan cockroach (Blatta lateralis) is thought to be displacing the common oriental cockroach (Blatta orientalis). Now that they are permanent residents of the Southwest, they can join in the rodeo fun like their cockroach cousins in the 1996 film Joe’s Apartment.

The most unusual thing about this immigrant to the southwestern US is that they are being spread via the Internet. The Turkestan cockroach is popular as live food among reptile breeders and can be easily bought and sold online. As a matter of fact, “this may be the first time that an invasive urban pest species is widely distributed via the Internet through the sale of live insects,” according to University of California-Riverside scientists Tina Kim & Michael Rust in their 2013 Journal of Economic Entomology article. So beware New Yorkers, they can easily be sent to a location near you.

Good to the last bite. Turkestan cockroaches clean up dinner dishes. (Photo: Angela Simental, nmsu.edu)

Good to the last bite. Turkestan cockroaches clean up dinner dishes.
(Photo: Angela Simental, nmsu.edu)

The Turkestan cockroach is also known as the rusty red cockroach or the red runner cockroach. It is a close cousin of the Oriental cockroach. It is primarily an outdoor insect, not known as an aggressive indoor pest, unlike some cockroach species such as the German and American cockroaches. “They typically inhabit in-ground containers such as water meter, irrigation, and electrical boxes, raises of concrete, cracks and crevices, and hollow block walls,” remark Kim and Rust.

This new cockroach is primarily an outdoor-dwelling native to an area from northern Africa to Central Asia. The species is distributed through the Caucasus Mountains, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, northeastern Africa; Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Libya.

The Turkestan cockroach first appeared in the U.S. in 1978 near a California military base.  This was followed by other discoveries near bases in Texas and other locations.  By 2001, they had spread to Los Angeles and, in 2005, infestations were noticed in Georgia. Researchers Kim and Rust believe the species may have arrived in the U.S. on military equipment returning from Asia or Afghanistan.

We may be looking at a demographic shift in the U.S. roach population. Turkestan cockroaches have been rapidly replacing the common Oriental cockroach in urban areas of the southwestern US. The Turkestan cockroach nymphs have a shorter developmental period, and the adult female produce considerably more eggs than do Oriental cockroaches. With a faster life cycle and larger broods, the Turkestan cockroach is outlaying and displacing its Oriental cockroach cousins in many locations.

No need to feel sorry for the Oriental cockroach. Remember that the U.S. is a country of immigrants. The American cockroach is believed to have entered the U.S. from Africa with the slave trade and the Oriental cockroach was believed to have come from the Middle East.

Let’s put this whole cockroach immigration into perspective. There are roughly 4,500 cockroach species worldwide, and only about 70 in the U.S. Correction – make that about 71!  Of all of these cockroaches, only about two percent are pests. For all their creepiness, the majority of cockroaches do little actual harm. They can even be considered beneficial outdoors. They are scavengers that recycle dead animals and vegetable material, and aerate the soil.  Thus, they provide an important ecological cleansing and fertilization service.

Roaches are really smart. Perhaps that’s why they are constantly trying to get into schools, homes, and other places.  How else do you think that they were able to survive for 300 million years, outliving the dinosaurs and surviving multiple mass extinction events?

They are highly adaptable to hot and cold. Plus, they have a special tolerance for many toxic chemicals. They survive some chemical and pesticide exposures and live to tell the tale. For instance, they can detect the application of a pesticide, decide they don’t like it, and make a decision to avoid it in the future. They can do that because they are equipped with fat bodies – pockets of enzymes. (That’s the white gooey stuff that gets on your shoes when you step on one.) These enzymes can detoxify some pesticides, so the roaches can go on living. They can also pass on their tolerance to their offspring. Thus, they can easily build up a resistance through only a few generations making some pesticides ineffective after a relatively short time. This resistance certainly keeps the pesticide industry busy developing new controls for cockroaches, and building better roach traps. See why roaches are so hard to eliminate. 

2.Male (a) and female (b) Turkestan cockroaches. (Photo: R. McLeod, tamu.edu)

Male (a) and female (b) Turkestan cockroaches. (Photo: R. McLeod, tamu.edu)

Still concerned about a roach invasion into your neighborhood? Until recently, efforts to suppress cockroach populations in the urban environment have relied almost exclusively on repeated applications of pesticides. This approach has become increasingly less popular, primarily due to the development of multi-chemical resistance among cockroach populations and increased public concern about pesticide exposure in their living environments. These two issues have greatly emphasized the need for a more holistic and prevention-based approach to cockroach management.

Prevent cockroaches from taking over your school, home or office. You can do a lot to prevent a cockroach invasion by following an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. Cockroaches are most easily managed by means of exclusion (preventing their entry) and sanitation (eliminating their food, water and shelter). Not only will these measures prevent a future infestation, they will also help to reduce an existing cockroach problem. If the preceding measures do not solve the problem to your satisfaction, you can incorporate cockroach baits and traps. For infestations, having a pest management professional provide IPM-based advice is a wise decision and may save time and money, and prevent the unnecessary use of pesticides. More on cockroach IPM in part 2 of this series.

 

For information, see EPA’s Cockroaches & Schools webpage and the University of California’s cockroach guidelines webpage.  You can also read an earlier blog on another invasive cockroach.

 

About the Author: Marcia is with EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM in Dallas, Texas. She holds a PhD in Environmental Management from Montclair State University along with degrees in Biology, Environmental Design, Landscape Architecture, and Instruction and Curriculum. Marcia was formerly with the EPA Region 2 Pesticides Program and has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology, and Oceanography at several universities.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Cockroaches in the School Kitchen

By Marcia Anderson

Cockroaches can be major pests in restaurants, hospitals, warehouses, offices and buildings with food-handling areas. Cockroaches are known to carry human pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can result in human diseases, such as food poisoning or diarrhea.cockroaches on the floor

This message came from the state of Maine’s Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. Really, it could come from nearly any state, any country or any continent. Cockroaches are one of the most common animals on earth.

Late last summer, I visited a school in the Northeast that was overrun with cockroaches. A custodian led us to classrooms, restrooms, storage areas and, finally, the cafeteria and kitchen. Most of it was cleaned during summer break. But when we entered the cafeteria, we found the floor littered with debris – food wrappers, papers, plastic drink bottles, and food.

We flicked on the lights and the floor moved. Thousands of cockroaches were scurrying from the light. We did a dance to avoid the mass of moving bodies.

Custodians had been directed to clean the building from the top down and the kitchen and cafeteria were on the ground floor. They were told not to clean the kitchen – that was up to kitchen staff. As the end of the year approaches, this results could be instructive for this year’s summer cleaners.

The kitchen staff had only a few days at the end of the school year to clean. Countertops, stovetops and sinks appeared clean, but ovens were caked with grease, as were pipes coming from the stoves, and floors under appliances.

Amer Cockroach  Clemson Univ  USDA Coop ex  Bugwood  1233111Large indoor cockroach populations are a leading cause of allergies, asthma and other bronchial disorders. In fact, cockroaches are one of the main triggers for asthma attacks for children in inner cities..

The presence of cockroaches is an indication that food, moisture and save havens for the roaches are present. Conditions in this school kitchen allowed the cockroach population to explode.

We advised the school to reduce the cockroach infestation by incorporating Integrated Pest Management practices. EPA recommends all schools manage pests using this approach.

Cockroach control is best accomplished through prevention, exclusion, sanitation and monitoring. Not only would these measures help prevent an infestation, they would reduce cockroach-related allergens.

Because of the severity of the infestation, we recommended the school get professional advice and service.

Here are some IPM-based actions your school can take to help reduce and prevent cockroaches and other pests. These tips can also work in your home if you have a problem with unwanted insects.

Sanitation. Eliminate sources of food and moisture, as well as hiding places for pests. Every day, sweep and mop areas that could attract cockroaches. Empty trash containers frequently, and line them with plastic bags. Kitchen appliances and areas around appliances should also be kept clean.

Exclusion. Cockroaches easily move through plumbing and electrical connections. Gaps around plumbing, electrical outlets, and switch plates should be sealed. Kitchen staff should scan grocery items for evidence of cockroaches before putting items away. Remove cardboard as cockroaches love to dine on the glue that holds boxes together.

Eliminate Water Sources. The single most important factor in determining cockroach survival is the availability of water. German cockroaches live less than two weeks without water.

Eliminate Harborage. By nature, cockroaches prefer dark, warm cracks and crevices. Any small gap or hole (1/16” or larger) that leads to a void is a prime cockroach living area. These cracks and crevices should be sealed.

Following these simple steps in your school will result in fewer pest problems.

EPA offers information about cockroaches and asthma along with a Citizen’s Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety. We also recommend exploring the EPA-sponsored Asthma Community Network website and visiting our school IPM website.

Marcia Anderson, who has a doctorate in environmental management, works with EPA’s headquarters on issues related to pest management in schools. She formerly worked in pesticides for EPA Region 2 and has a home in Lyman, Maine

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Moisture in Matt’s Apartment: Plumbing Problems Lead to Pests

Cracks behind bathroom fixtures and missing caulk can create open passageways for pests into your home.

Cracks behind bathroom fixtures and missing caulk can create open passageways for pests into your home.

By: Marcia Anderson

When I went to use the bathroom in my son’s city university apartment, I was greeted by more than I bargained for. I flicked on the light switch and black creatures moved from the sink and bath tub into cracks behind the fixtures. After a bit of sleuthing I discovered caulk missing from around the bathtub and sink – perfect places for both moisture and pests, such as cockroaches, to accumulate. It was not as bad as Joe’s Apartment ‘(1996, MTV Films) but I was just as creeped out.

Most people are unaware of the association between plumbing problems and pests, but the fact is that the two are intertwined. Bugs and rodents are attracted to water. If you have a leak or a place where moisture is allowed to accumulate in your apartment, house or school, it will attract pests. To get rid of pests and keep them from coming back, you have to deprive them of everything they need to survive: food, water, shelter, and ways to get around.

If you have a leaky faucet or other water source along with a tiny hole in your wall, pests will make themselves at home, in your home. Pests, such as cockroaches, may also move between neighboring apartments along plumbing and electrical ducts. Seal around these entry points to keep them out.

Once inside, cockroaches like to hide in cracks and crevices where it’s dark and warm and there’s food and water nearby. The single most important factor in determining cockroach survival is the availability of water. Moisture makes your bathroom and kitchen ideal places for finding whatever’s bugging you. Water left in the sink after washing dishes or in the bathtub after a shower provides moisture for cockroaches. These sources are eliminated by drying out sinks and bathtubs after use. You can help eliminate pests by getting rid of other sources of moisture, like piles of damp towels or laundry that attract silverfish. Use your bathroom window or fan to vent shower steam to prevent mildew and mold.  Report or fix vents that aren’t drawing air out. 

Another favorite place for cockroaches to hide is in your bottom kitchen cabinets. They are a potential pest nirvana with trash, moisture, clutter and dark hiding places. Another common source of moisture in the kitchen is condensation under the refrigerator. Place a pan under the appliance to collect water and empty it frequently.

Pet water dishes and aquariums are also sources of moisture. Empty water dishes at night when cockroaches are foraging but your pet is asleep. Aquariums should have tight fitting lids or screens to prevent cockroach entry. And be careful not to over-water indoor plants because the excess water is available to cockroaches.

In storage areas keep cardboard boxes and even plastic bins off the floor and on a wire rack or shelf. Be especially rigorous on concrete floors as moisture forms between the floor surface and the box bottom attracting silverfish and cockroaches. They will start by eating the box bottom, and quickly make their way into the inside of your boxes, destroying priceless photographs, documents and clothing. Another reason to use storage racks is for easier pest inspections. With boxes off the floor, you can quickly spot mouse droppings and evidence of other unwanted critters.

Be Pest Wise! Regular maintenance such as fixing leaks, sealing holes and cracks, and sanitation are key components of a smart, sensible and sustainable pest management program. Recognizing the value of pest prevention is an important first step. See EPA’s webpage on controlling pests in your home, school, or business for more information.

 

About the Author: Marcia is with EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM in Dallas, Texas. She holds a PhD in Environmental Management from Montclair State University along with degrees in Biology, Environmental Design, Landscape Architecture, and Instruction and Curriculum. Marcia was formerly with the EPA Region 2 Pesticides Program and has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology, and Oceanography at several universities.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Children’s Health: A link between Allergies, Asthma and School Attendance

By Marcia Anderson

 Cockroach allergens are linked to children’s asthma

Cockroach allergens are linked to children’s asthma

Many schools have shown a high incidence of students missing valuable school days due to asthma and allergies. In many of the same schools that report a high incidence of absenteeism, we have also found cockroach infestations in cafeterias, storage closets and teacher break rooms.

Is there a relationship between cockroach exposure, allergies and asthma?

Most people with asthma have allergic responses in their bronchial tubes when they breathe in particles of the right size and shape and composed of materials recognized by their immune system. Exposure to things like mold, cat dander, ragweed, pollen, and rodent and cockroach droppings can elicit an allergic reaction.

The proteins in cockroach feces and their decomposing bodies are of just the right size to be lifted into the air, inhaled and recognized by the immune system as a signal to make an allergic reaction in some people. This is asthma. Airborne cockroach allergens will stick to particles, like dust, that quickly settle onto dust-trapping fabrics found on upholstered furniture, carpets and curtains. Activities like vacuuming, or even walking may stir up these allergens.

An asthma attack can happen when a student is exposed to “asthma triggers.” One child’s triggers can be very different from those of another child or an adult with asthma.

What Causes the Allergic Reaction? The job of the immune system is to find foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, and get rid of them. This protects us from dangerous diseases. People with allergies have supersensitive immune systems that react when they inhale, swallow or touch certain substances such as pollen or dust that contain the allergens. Some people are born with allergies. Others seem to acquire these allergic sensitivities as they grow older.

Asthma Studies: A 2014 study in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology showed marked geographic differences in allergen exposure and sensitivity in inner city children. Early exposure to cockroach allergens can actually cause asthma to develop in preschool aged children. Inhaling particles from cockroaches can cause coughing and wheezing in babies less than 12 months of age. A lack of understanding about asthma and its treatment may cause further risk of severe, undertreated asthma. In many low income communities, coughing and wheezing are accepted as part of normal growing up and medical care may not be sought because it isn’t considered necessary, or it is too difficult to access.

A National Institutes of Health research project demonstrated a definitive connection between income and the severity of asthma in the population (http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/sept98/niaid-21.htm). The study compared people hospitalized for asthma in six major U.S. cities. It found that the lower the average income, the more frequent the need for hospitalization for severe asthmatic attacks.

Exposure to the things that stimulate asthma like cockroaches, second hand smoke, mold, and air pollution are often greater in poor households. In dwellings where the amount of cockroach allergens are high, exposure is high and the rate of hospitalization for asthma goes up.

Keeping your home and family safe: The EPA recommends that you use Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a smart, sensible and sustainable approach to pest control. Smart because IPM creates a safer and healthier environment by managing pests and reducing children’s exposure to pests and pesticides. Sensible since practical strategies are used to reduce sources of food, water and shelter for pests in buildings. Sustainable because the emphasis is on prevention that makes it an economically advantageous approach.

Actions you can take: From cracks to drain traps to groceries, cockroaches can find a way into your home in the oddest of places. Focus on sanitation to eliminate food sources, moisture sources, and harborage for the insects. At least every two to three days, vacuum or sweep areas that might attract cockroaches.

Allergen concentrations are generally highest in kitchens where there is plenty of food and water for cockroaches. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean, dry and free of clutter. Clean dishes, crumbs and spills right away. Store food in airtight containers. Seal cracks or openings around or inside cabinets to keep cockroaches out.

Next are bedrooms where people inhale the allergens that have settled into bedding. Wash bedding regularly in hot water and remove any unnecessary fabrics like curtains and upholstered furniture. Replace carpeting with smooth flooring that can be damp-mopped.

Controlling Cockroaches. To prevent and treat cockroach infestations in your home use IPM methods first – sanitation followed by low-impact pesticides such as baits, or gels.

EPA offers more information about cockroaches and asthma along with a Citizen’s Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety. We also recommend reviewing EPA’s Asthma Checklist and exploring the EPA-sponsored Asthma Community Network website.

About the Author: Marcia is with EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM in Dallas, Texas. She holds a PhD in Environmental Management from Montclair State University along with degrees in Biology, Environmental Design, Landscape Architecture, and Instruction and Curriculum. Marcia was formerly with the EPA Region 2 Pesticides Program and has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology, and Oceanography at several universities.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Children’s Health: A link between Allergies, Asthma and School Attendance

By Marcia Anderson

 Cockroach allergens are linked to children’s asthma

Cockroach allergens are linked to children’s asthma

Many schools have shown a high incidence of students missing valuable school days due to asthma and allergies. In many of the same schools that report a high incidence of absenteeism, we have also found cockroach infestations in cafeterias, storage closets and teacher break rooms.

Is there a relationship between cockroach exposure, allergies and asthma?

Most people with asthma have allergic responses in their bronchial tubes when they breathe in particles of the right size and shape and composed of materials recognized by their immune system. Exposure to things like mold, cat dander, ragweed, pollen, and rodent and cockroach droppings can elicit an allergic reaction.

The proteins in cockroach feces and their decomposing bodies are of just the right size to be lifted into the air, inhaled and recognized by the immune system as a signal to make an allergic reaction in some people. This is asthma. Airborne cockroach allergens will stick to particles, like dust, that quickly settle onto dust-trapping fabrics found on upholstered furniture, carpets and curtains. Activities like vacuuming, or even walking may stir up these allergens.

An asthma attack can happen when a student is exposed to “asthma triggers.” One child’s triggers can be very different from those of another child or an adult with asthma.

What Causes the Allergic Reaction? The job of the immune system is to find foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, and get rid of them. This protects us from dangerous diseases. People with allergies have supersensitive immune systems that react when they inhale, swallow or touch certain substances such as pollen or dust that contain the allergens. Some people are born with allergies. Others seem to acquire these allergic sensitivities as they grow older.

Asthma Studies: A 2014 study in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology showed marked geographic differences in allergen exposure and sensitivity in inner city children. Early exposure to cockroach allergens can actually cause asthma to develop in preschool aged children. Inhaling particles from cockroaches can cause coughing and wheezing in babies less than 12 months of age. A lack of understanding about asthma and its treatment may cause further risk of severe, undertreated asthma. In many low income communities, coughing and wheezing are accepted as part of normal growing up and medical care may not be sought because it isn’t considered necessary, or it is too difficult to access.

A National Institutes of Health research project demonstrated a definitive connection between income and the severity of asthma in the population (http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/sept98/niaid-21.htm). The study compared people hospitalized for asthma in six major U.S. cities. It found that the lower the average income, the more frequent the need for hospitalization for severe asthmatic attacks.

Exposure to the things that stimulate asthma like cockroaches, second hand smoke, mold, and air pollution are often greater in poor households. In dwellings where the amount of cockroach allergens are high, exposure is high and the rate of hospitalization for asthma goes up.

Keeping your home and family safe: The EPA recommends that you use Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a smart, sensible and sustainable approach to pest control. Smart because IPM creates a safer and healthier environment by managing pests and reducing children’s exposure to pests and pesticides. Sensible since practical strategies are used to reduce sources of food, water and shelter for pests in buildings. Sustainable because the emphasis is on prevention that makes it an economically advantageous approach.

Actions you can take: From cracks to drain traps to groceries, cockroaches can find a way into your home in the oddest of places. Focus on sanitation to eliminate food sources, moisture sources, and harborage for the insects. At least every two to three days, vacuum or sweep areas that might attract cockroaches.

Allergen concentrations are generally highest in kitchens where there is plenty of food and water for cockroaches. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean, dry and free of clutter. Clean dishes, crumbs and spills right away. Store food in airtight containers. Seal cracks or openings around or inside cabinets to keep cockroaches out.

Next are bedrooms where people inhale the allergens that have settled into bedding. Wash bedding regularly in hot water and remove any unnecessary fabrics like curtains and upholstered furniture. Replace carpeting with smooth flooring that can be damp-mopped.

Controlling Cockroaches. To prevent and treat cockroach infestations in your home use IPM methods first – sanitation followed by low-impact pesticides such as baits, or gels.

EPA offers more information about cockroaches and asthma along with a Citizen’s Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety. We also recommend reviewing EPA’s Asthma Checklist and exploring the EPA-sponsored Asthma Community Network website.

About the Author: Marcia is with EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM in Dallas, Texas. She holds a PhD in Environmental Management from Montclair State University along with degrees in Biology, Environmental Design, Landscape Architecture, and Instruction and Curriculum. Marcia was formerly with the EPA Region 2 Pesticides Program and has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology, and Oceanography at several universities.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Immigrant Cockroach from Asia Found in New York City

By Marcia Anderson

RoachThere has been a lot of talk about immigrants entering the U.S. lately, but did you know that there are two new international species of cockroach: one in New York City, the other in the Southwest?

New York City is home to eight million people and countless cockroaches, so what’s a few more? That’s right. Better make room in the apartment for a few cousins from across the Pacific.

The new roach is Periplaneta japonica, a petite Asian relative of the common American cockroach. The species was first spotted in New York in 2012 by an exterminator checking a roach trap on the High Line, an elevated walkway and park on Manhattan’s west side. The Asian immigrant was positively identified by two Rutgers University insect biologists: Jessica Ware and Dominic Evangelista, through its DNA. It was documented in the Journal of Economic Entomology “Using DNA Barcodes to Confirm the Presence of a New Invasive Cockroach Pest in New York City.”

The biologists suspect that one or more of the ornamental plants that adorn the High Line arrived in soil that contained the new pest. Despite the fact that the High Line’s gardens focus on native plants, many nurseries grow native plants alongside imports. The roaches, commonly found in China and Korea, may have traveled to the U.S. in the soil of the imports.

Time to call the Mayor and the National Guard? The Rutgers researchers say there probably is no reason for New Yorkers to panic because this species is very similar to the cockroaches that already exist in the city. The new roaches may thrive in the northeast and out-compete their local American cockroach cousins, due to a unique ability to survive freezing temperatures and to tolerate snow. So what? It is not like there is a shortage of cockroaches in New York City or in any other urban area.

Roaches are the real survivors. Think about it. Cockroaches have been around for 300 million years, long before the dinosaurs, and have survived multiple global extinction events. They are built to survive and have a well-earned reputation for the ability to live in the worst of conditions, including scant food or even no air for a time. It is often said that if humanity succeeds in destroying itself, roaches will inherit the Earth.

What about interbreeding and creating a super roach?  That’s an unsettling thought! Remember the super roach in “Men in Black”? Will it soon be time to call in Agents K and J to save Manhattan, again? Not to worry. It is highly unlikely there will be any crossbreeding because of physical differences.

Is the Asian cockroach an invasive species? To be truly invasive, a species has to move in, take over and out-compete a native species. That does not appear to be the case here because this species is very similar to the multiple cockroach species that already exist in the urban environment. However, the Rutgers scientists believe that it will likely compete with other species for space and for food. Competition is a good thing. The roaches may spend more time and energy competing and less time and energy reproducing.

Health Concerns: Indoor cockroaches are a leading causes of allergies, asthma and other bronchial disorders in humans. In fact, cockroaches are one of the main triggers for asthma attacks for children living in inner cities, and the higher rate of asthma in kids. Additionally, cockroaches are capable of carrying disease organisms and bacteria on their bodies and in their fecal material. The presence of cockroaches in and around urban structures is an indication that cockroach food, moisture and harborage resources are present. These conditions allow them to proliferate.

Still concerned about roaches invading your neighborhood? Until recently, efforts to control cockroaches in the urban environment have relied almost exclusively on repeated pesticide applications. This approach to cockroach control has become increasingly less popular, primarily due to roaches developing resistance to pesticides and increased public concern about pesticide use in their living environment, especially around children. These two issues emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to cockroach management and for a way off of the pesticide treadmill.

Here’s how to prevent roaches from taking over your home, school, or office: There is a lot that you can do to prevent a roach invasion by following a smart, sensible, and sustainable approach to pest control called Integrated Pest Management (IPM).  Roach control is most easily accomplished by exclusion (keeping cockroaches out) and sanitation (eliminating food, water and shelter). Not only will these measures reduce an existing cockroach problem, they will prevent future infestations. In addition to preventative measures, cockroach traps and insecticide baits and gels may be needed to control an active infestation. In the case of infestations, having a professional provide advice and on both IPM and pesticides is a wise decision and may save time, money and reduce unnecessary exposure to pesticides.

Look for more on smart, sensible, and sustainable ways to manage cockroaches in an upcoming blog.

About the Author: Marcia is with EPA’s Center of Expertise for School IPM in Dallas, Texas. She holds a PhD in Environmental Management from Montclair State University along with degrees in Biology, Environmental Design, Landscape Architecture, and Instruction and Curriculum. Marcia was formerly with the EPA Region 2 Pesticides Program and has been a professor of Earth and Environmental Studies, Geology, and Oceanography at several universities.

 

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