Re-connecting the Two Hearted River

A six-year effort has now been completed—using funds from EPA’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative and other sources—to re-connect 35 miles of the Two Hearted River. As a result, this waterway is now one of the longest free-flowing rivers in the Great Lakes.

Though the Two Hearted is the only designated wilderness river in the state, that doesn’t mean the watershed hasn’t been beaten up, much of its bruising from sweeping white pine clear-cutting decades ago. More recently, stream crossings over culverts have collapsed, creating jams and resulting in sediment pouring into the waterway. The stream then fractured, with spawning beds smothering from siltation.

Welcome to the world of what restoration biologists call “connectivity,” the need for fish to spawn upstream unimpeded and unchoked. In this case, the victims have been the better-known native brook trout, round whitefish, northern pike and others hindered from their natural migration.

Hindered no more. A public-private partnership, with leadership from The Nature Conservancy, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Superior Watershed Partnership, Luce County, Trout Unlimited, corporate and private landowners, a couple of townships, and several Sportsman’s Clubs and small businesses, came together to restore the Two Hearted’s pulse.

“The Two-Hearted is no longer broken,” proclaims Dr. Patrick Doran, conservation director at TNC’s Michigan office. “Rarely do we get the opportunity to re-connect an entire watershed. Thanks in large part to the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative and our many other public and private partners, the river is now free-flowing without barriers.”

With the project’s completion $990,000 later, 100 percent of these impediments—27 road crossings and sedimentation sources in all—have been removed or re-engineered to result in a naturally-flowing stream. Once the full effect of the restoration takes hold, an estimated 626 tons per year of sediment – the equivalent of 22 dump trucks, according to Dr. Doran – that suppresses fish spawning will be prevented.

The team replaced corrugated metal culverts, which were prone to collapse and allowed more sediment to wash into the river, with precast concrete culverts. In another case, instead of rebuilding a culvert, the team used a movable bridge. And by moving the bridge to different locations when needed, it reduced impact even more. Why have three permanent bridges to collect sediment when only one will do the trick? The team found the work could mean 98 percent less sedimentation than traditional culverts.

Today the vibrant partnership, innovative approaches to solving real ecological problems and dedicated funding make the river a great restoration case study. It also marks the recovery of this nationally and culturally significant river. To read more about EPA’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, click here:

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.