Sea Farming Shellfish and Seaweed in Long Island Sound
By Mark Tedesco
The theory behind the martial art of Jiu Jitsu is to use an attacker’s force against him or herself. What if the same theory can be applied to pollutants that degrade coastal water quality? An innovative project just offshore of where the Bronx River empties into western Long Island Sound is doing just that.
There on a raft anchored about 20 meters offshore, not far from the Hunts Point market, scientists from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the University of Connecticut, and Purchase College are studying a pilot sea farm of shellfish and seaweed. Students from the South Bronx community are maintaining the sea farm through involvement of Rocking the Boat, a nonprofit community development organization. The seaweed and shellfish (ribbed mussels) grow by absorbing and filtering nutrients from the water. When harvested, the nutrients they contain are taken out of the water. As a result, sea farming of shellfish and seaweed could be a powerful tool in cleaning up nutrient-enriched waters.
While nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus are essential for the growth of plants and animals, in excess they can overwhelm coastal waters, resulting in poor visibility, low oxygen levels, and loss of healthy wetlands and sea grasses. Through the Long Island Sound Study, EPA and the states of New York and Connecticut are taking action to improve the water quality of Long Island Sound by reducing the amount of nitrogen entering Long Island Sound by 60 percent, mainly by upgrading wastewater treatment plants and controlling fertilizer-laden stormwater runoff. Enhancing sea farming of shellfish and seaweeds in Long Island Sound can complement nutrient control strategies as part of a comprehensive clean water strategy. The pilot study is evaluating a range of potential markets for the harvest, from seafood for human consumption to agricultural feeds, from biofuels to pharmaceutical products.
The project has caught the interest of the CNN and the New York Times. If successful, the expansion of sea farming of shellfish and seaweed can mean more jobs, cleaner water, and local quality products.
About the author: Mark Tedesco is director of the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Long Island Sound Office. The office coordinates the Long Island Sound Study, administered by EPA as part of the National Estuary Program under the Clean Water Act. Mr. Tedesco is responsible for supporting implementation of a Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound, approved in 1994 by the by the Governors of New York and Connecticut and the EPA Administrator, in cooperation with federal, state, and local government, private organizations, and the public. Mr. Tedesco has worked for EPA for 25 years. He received his M.S. in marine environmental science in 1986 and a B.S in biology in 1982 from Stony Brook University.
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