Skip to content

A New Beginning: Headwater Research

2014 February 27

By Marguerite Huber

I like beginnings. They are a fresh start and influence our lives further down the road. Just like how we have new beginnings, all rivers have influential beginnings too. In a network of rivers up in the mountains, headwater streams are the uppermost streams furthest from the river’s endpoint or merger with another stream. They are the very beginning of miles and miles of rivers and have a great impact on what flows downstream.headwaterstream

Headwater streams and their catchments, or drainage basins, are necessary for the maintenance of healthy and productive streams and rivers. Headwater catchments also provide numerous ecosystem services to humans and the surrounding environment. These benefits include biodiversity, climate regulation, recreation, timber and crop production, and water supply and purification.

EPA researchers studied the importance of headwater catchments by focusing on the quantity and value of a few ecosystem services, and then projected that importance from a regional to national scale. They focused on three ecosystem services (water supply, climate regulation, and water purification) for 568 headwater streams and their catchments.

To assess the potential economic value of headwater catchments’ ecosystem services, researchers used published economic value estimates based on commodity price (water supply), market value (climate regulation), and damage cost avoidance (water purification).

They found the economic value of each ecosystem service as follows:

  • $470,000 – The average yearly value of water supplied through each headwater catchment.
  • $553, 000 – The average yearly value of climate regulation (through carbon sequestration) of each headwater catchment.
  • $29,759,000 – The average yearly value of improving water quality by reducing nutrient pollution.

Overall, the weighted average economic value for headwater catchments in the United States was $31 million per year per catchment. It is essential to note that the national importance of headwater catchments is even higher since the 568 catchments studied are only a statistical representation of the more than 2 million headwater catchments in the continental United States. I think it’s safe to say these beginnings provide some serious benefits!

About the authorMarguerite Huber is a Student Contractor with EPA’s Science Communications Team.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

3 Responses leave one →
  1. Arman.- permalink
    February 27, 2014


    If I am the President of United States of America, I’ll give the special appointment to you, as the Ambassador of Headwater Catchments, to announce to all the Govt in worldwide and their people, that how we save the water for healthy water in this planet…………..-

  2. Alexander permalink
    February 27, 2014

    I saw the birth of the great rivers from alpine snow. I went down for the first drops of water, then the creek, and so to a large stream. Today I see a large stream from my home water tap and do it drops of water. I know the value of water.

  3. Alan Gregory permalink
    February 28, 2014

    A nicely crafted essay on a topic most Americans are unaware of. To them, water comes from the faucet, not the forest in which a main stem river begins its course. I moved to Vermont two years ago after two decades of life near an Appalachian waterway polluted for a century by acid mine drainage. I remain astounded by the seeming acceptance of that debacle by the anthracite coal region’s residents. For the wyhole story of the Little Nescopeck Creek and the Jeddo Mine Tunnel see

Leave a Reply

Note: You can use basic XHTML in your comments. Your email address will never be published.

Subscribe to this comment feed via RSS