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Library of Documents

This page provides links to relevant documents on uranium and thorium milling and extraction, the regulatory history of 40 CFR Part 192, EPA published documents concerning the development of the regulation, and links to other documents or information on uranium and thorium milling and extraction facilities. Little thorium extraction is currently taking place in the U.S., so most literature cited here is on uranium.

Regulatory History of 40 CFR Part 192

While the EPA regulations cover thorium extraction facilities, little thorium extraction is currently taking place in the U.S. Thorium is a potential source of nuclear power, but significant development of this mineral will depend upon technology and price breakthroughs.

Uranium extraction facilities are those which produce 11(e)(2) byproduct material as determined by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, including mills, In Situ Leach (ISL) recovery facilities, and heap leach facilities. Conventional underground or surface (open pit) mines and their associated wastes are not included.

40 CFR Part 192

You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s PDF page to learn more.

Federal Register Notices
Background and Supporting Documents

EPA Technical Reports


The January 2006 version of this report (without later revisions) is also available in print or CD-ROM. See Obtaining Documents or send a request to

This report provides a general scoping evaluation of potential radiogenic cancer and environmental risks posed by small abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.


Guidelines for Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials.

This 1999 report was prepared for EPA at the requested of Congress. It discusses and evaluates EPA’s radiation protection and risk standards and guidelines for Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), including uranium, radium and thorium. It is available for purchase or downloading.

This report is EPA’s response to the recommendations of the National Research Council.

Uranium Location Database Compilation: Overview and Database Files

EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.


This supporting document is an overview of the Uranium Location Database.

Database Files

The database is designed for use with geographic information system (GIS) software. A geographic projection (NAD 1983) of the uranium locations found in the database may be generated with GIS software, using these sample files:

The entire database compilation contains the master database, component databases, shape files and supporting documentation. To order, see the directions on Obtaining Documents.

Public Information Meetings 2010

Public Information Meetings provided an overview of the regulatory review and existing standards and gave stakeholders the opportunity to present their input.

Meeting Notes


Other Related Meetings

The National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council has established a committee which is investigating the regulatory framework and potential environmental impacts of uranium mining and milling in Virginia. This presentation given on October 26, 2010, provided an overview of EPA’s regulatory responsibility for uranium mining and milling, as well as review of its existing regulations for these types of facilities.

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