Science Wednesday

Science Wednesday: Net Zero

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Leslie Gillespie-Marthaler

As someone who has spent time on military installations and has a great respect for the Army community, I’m thrilled to be helping the Army work toward “Net Zero” and sustainability.

I’ve lived on installations myself, and know firsthand that they are very much like small cities. With thousands of soldiers, civilians and families on base, they face many of the same challenges that cities around the country are facing, including increased energy costs, limited water resources and aging infrastructure. For example, last year Army installations used 41.8 billion gallons of potable water at a cost of $67.4 million.

To help combat these challenges, EPA and the Department of the Army have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to advance the Army’s Net Zero Initiative.

The goal of the Initiative is to ensure that Army installations only consume as much energy and water as they produce and minimize waste sent to landfills. EPA scientists and engineers will provide their skills and expertise to bring cutting-edge research assistance to the effort.

I was happy to be on hand this week when Paul Anastas, PhD, Assistant Administrator for the Office of Research and Development and Science Advisor at EPA, signed the MOU with the Honorable Katherine Hammack, Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Energy and the Environment.

“The Net Zero partnership was inspired by the Army’s ability to demonstrate true leadership in sustainability,” said Anastas. “The Army Installations are a test bed for new technologies that can solve more than one problem and can be replicated or scaled for communities throughout the nation.”

“We look forward to working with Army experts to develop tools and technologies to address some of our more pressing economic and environmental challenges,” he added.

“Through a whole-of-government approach to sustainability, the Army’s Net Zero Initiative increases the Army’s ability to be successful today and into the future. Our collaboration with EPA’s Office of Research and Development brings leading-edge research assistance together to advance both our institutions’ goals for increased resource efficiency and balanced resource use,” said Hammack.

Anastas emphasized how the Army’s and EPA’s goals are intricately interconnected: “You are protecting the nation. We are helping make the nation worth protecting,” he said.

I feel it’s both a privilege and an honor to help incredible Army communities and their neighbors achieve “Net Zero.”

About the author: A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Leslie Gillespie-Marthaler, is currently a senior advisor in EPA’s Office of Research and Development.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Science Wednesday: Sustainability at the U.S. EPA

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Abbey Reller

Earlier this fall I attended the book launch for an effort to incorporate sustainability into every aspect EPA takes to protect the environment: Sustainability and the U.S. EPA, or as it is called around here, The Green Book. I had just begun my internship with EPA in the Office of Research and Development, and this was an opportunity for me to learn about the motivation behind all science research within the agency.

As I looked toward the speaker on stage, I noticed three words mounted on the wall: Wonders of Science. To me it seemed those three words fostered the concept of The Green Book. While sustainability is defined in multiple different ways, I like the language the authors used to describe it, which comes from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA):

“…to create and maintain conditions, under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and other requirements of present and future generations.”

The most important thing I learned that day was how limitless science is because of sustainability. With a growing population and developing technology, there constantly seems to be ways to improve human health and protect the environment.

The one piece of advice I received from various people during my internship: Whatever you want to do, become an expert at it. Wow, way to put the pressure on!

As I looked around at all the people in the Koshland Science Museum during The Green Book launch, I realized exactly whom I was sitting amongst — the science and sustainability experts of the world. I was quite inspired and pleased to attend the event with such remarkable scientists.

One in particular, Paul Anastas, Ph.D., the Assistant Administrator of EPA’s Office of Research and Development, describes sustainability as the True North of EPA research. I am thrilled to have gotten to observe his work during my internship. He is a true expert in sustainability and I am quite inspired by his work.

So, when my internship ends I will continue on my journey to becoming an expert in my field of study. With a little bit of passion and a lot of determination, the challenge no longer seems impossible.

About the author: Abbey Reller is an intern in EPA’s Office of Research and Development. She is currently pursuing a Bachelors of Public Affairs at Indiana University.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Science Wednesday: Durham’s Journey to Sustainability

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Jing Zhang

Each time I visit downtown Durham, North Carolina, I am pleasantly surprised and impressed by the improvements and renovations. Areas such as the American Tobacco Campus have successfully incorporated historic buildings and commercial space with modern architecture and design, winning it industry awards including Best Mixed Use Development, Best Renovated Commercial Property, and Best Redevelopment Project.

Durham isn’t stopping there. Through the Partnership for Sustainable Communities, the city is working with EPA, the US Department of Transportation (DOT), and the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to create a more sustainable community.

The partnership has adopted six “livability principles” that they wish to achieve:

  1. providing more transportation options,
  2. promoting affordable housing,
  3. improving economic competitiveness,
  4. supporting existing communities,
  5. coordinating federal policies and investment
  6. enhancing the value of neighborhoods and communities

Guided by these principles, EPA scientists are working with community leaders to support the city’s needs and goals. As outlined in their strategic plan, Durham’s goals include reducing neighborhood energy use through conservation and efficiency, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing the percentage of solid waste diverted to recycling.

EPA is developing tools and strategies to support community leaders in evaluating the current state of the community, making decisions to address areas of concern, and measuring progress made over time.

The EnviroAtlas is a web-based tool that maps natural resources. Using the Urban Atlas, a finer-resolution component of the National Atlas, community leaders can evaluate the distribution and function of resources such as trees, which provide numerous benefits like filtering air, providing shade, and storing rainwater. Decision makers can also evaluate the trade-offs and benefits associated with alternative management decisions by mapping different “layers” of data to assess the environment under future conditions such as population growth, resource depletion, and climate change.

Durham will be the first community to implement and use EPA’s new tools and strategies. According to project leaders Rochelle Araujo and Melissa McCullough, “The Durham pilot project presents an exciting opportunity for EPA to demonstrate that, with the right information and forethought, environmental decisions can cascade across the community in the form of health and economic benefits. Using state of the art science, EPA can provide communities with support tools and strategies so that diverse community groups can work effectively in concert for sustainability.”

About the author: Jing Zhang is a student services contractor with the science communication team in EPA’s Office of Research and Development.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday:Getting the Word Out About EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Research

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Dayna Gibbons

As far as I’m concerned, daylight savings time could not have come at a better time. Last week, EPA released its final study plan to research the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. As a member of the science communications team, part of my job was to help ensure the study plan and a host of supporting material—from a press release to web site updates to @EPAresearch “tweets”—were ready so we could share the news. There was a lot to do, and by the weekend I was grateful to have an extra hour of sleep!

Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking” as it’s more commonly called, is a stimulus technique that gas producers use to extract natural gas out of sources such as coalbeds and shale formations. (It’s also used for other applications, including oil recovery.) Many are hopeful that fracking will play a key role in unlocking natural gas from reserves across large areas of the U.S. Yet, concerns have been raised about the impact such practices might have on drinking water resources.

Toward the end of 2010, Congress directed EPA to conduct research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. Since then, EPA has engaged with the public, the scientific community, and interested stakeholders to ensure public input into the study’s design where appropriate. The draft plan went through a public comment period and was peer-reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board to ensure a scientifically sound approach.

EPA’s study will answer questions across the full hydraulic fracturing water lifecycle. This means that the data our scientists collect will help us understand the potential impacts on water resources from the beginning to end of the fracking process—from using large amounts of ground and surface waters, to drilling activities and the use of chemicals and, finally, the management, disposal, and treatment of used water.

The first study results will be released in 2012, and the final report will be released in 2014. In addition, EPA will regularly host webinars—including today at 3:30pm and tomorrow at 2:30pm—and provide updates throughout the study in order to keep the public informed of the progress. I’m sure that will continue to keep me busy, but at least I have an extra hour of sleep under my belt.

About the author: Dayna Gibbons has worked in communications at EPA since 2002.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Science Wednesday: Wheels of Progress

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Aaron Ferster

Last week I shared a ride to Baltimore with EPA’s Assistant Administrator for Research and Development, Dr. Paul Anastas. My colleague Joanne and I wanted to catch Dr. Anastas’ keynote address at the 21st Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science, so when he accepted her offer for a ride to the meeting, I was able to tag along.

According to the official biography on EPA’s web site, Dr. Anastas is: Known widely as the “Father of Green Chemistry” for his groundbreaking research on the design, manufacture, and use of minimally-toxic, environmentally-friendly chemicals.

He’s also my boss’ boss, so it occurred to me as we strolled toward Joanne’s car that the standard travel protocol—calling out “shotgun!” and leaping into the front seat—was not in order.

Luckily, Dr. Anastas graciously suggested I sit upfront so I could navigate while he fielded calls, monitored his e-mail traffic, and put the final touches on his speech. (Just for the record: I’m pretty sure I would have won the passenger seat.)

Along the way, we chatted. Amongst the talk of congressional hearings, exposure models, and Disney princesses (we all have kids or grandkids), Dr. Anastas made a point that stuck with me: it took years of travel before anyone thought to put wheels on luggage.

That stayed with me throughout his talk about innovation, and how EPA research is striving to advance science and engineering for a sustainable future. Dr. Anastas shared how commitments made over the past 40 years have led to cleaner and healthier air, land, and water.

When I got back to the office I did a quick Google and some simple math to conclude that astronauts landed on the moon some 18 years before a handle and two wheels became standard fare for a big suitcase.

I actually found that kind of comforting. While a bevy of EPA scientists and engineers work to bring the required innovative, high-tech solutions that will surely be needed to meet the environmental challenges of the day, they are also working to share EPA data and challenge everyone interested to join the race for solutions.

Programs such as the Apps for the Environment Challenge and the upcoming Apps for the Environment Forum aim to inspire the environmental equivalent of wheels on luggage. This could be your chance to join the race for environmental solutions. Whose got shotgun?

About the author: Aaron Ferster is the senior science writer for EPA’s Office of Research and Development, the editor of Science Wednesday, and an excellent navigator.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday: EPA Awards Research Grants to Study Black Carbon

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Katie Lubinsky

My morning drive to work involves bypassing road construction. You know … the smell of baking asphalt, those bright, dizzying orange cones in the road that you almost hit, and of course, construction trucks galore!

I breathe in the smoky, throat-gripping exhaust from the construction vehicles, which seems ‘oh-so-healthy’ for the environment. I couldn’t help but wonder how the exhaust from the diesel vehicles here compares to other exhaust sources, not just locally, but globally.
One pollutant associated with diesel exhaust as well as contributing to global air pollution is black carbon (BC). BC is a short-lived aerosol that stays in the atmosphere from days to weeks. While there, BC absorbs solar radiation and quickly warms the climate. It affects weather patterns like rain and cloud formation as well as deposits on snow and ice in Arctic areas that, in turn, darken the snow and ice causing a warming climate by decreasing Earth’s reflective power.

Health effects are also a concern with this pollutant; especially in developing countries where many people rely on indoor cook stoves that burn BC-emitting fuels (biomass, wood or coal). This, in turn, affects those around the stoves. In fact, BC contributes to mortality, cardiovascular and lung problems, and other health problems.

EPA recently awarded nine Science to Achieve Results Research Grants to eight universities to extensively study BC. Research will involve tracking BC aging in the atmosphere, using innovative computer models to look at BC deposits in the snow of the Great Plains and Canada, and studying how BC and other materials deposit into human lungs and incorporate into rain drops.

The grants went to: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (two grants); Carnegie Mellon University; University of California, Irvine; University of California, Riverside; University of Iowa; University of Washington; University of Wisconsin-Madison; and Rutgers University.

The goal of the EPA-supported research is to help answer several scientific and policy-related questions about the effectiveness of actions that can be taken to mitigate BC’s impact on climate and air quality. Hopefully, they will also help clear the air for my future morning commutes.

About the author: Katie Lubinsky is a student contractor working with EPA’s Office of Research and Development.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday – Modeling Matters: See Mack Run the Half-Marathon

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Tanya Otte

Lots of people like running. I’m not one of them…unless it involves running models! Since I was hired, I’ve been a part of a team that develops and runs models to help understand interactions between meteorology, natural and anthropogenic (“human-caused”) emissions, and air quality. The heartbeat of the air quality model development occurs in EPA’s Atmospheric Modeling and Analysis Division and with the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system, the Nation’s premier air quality simulation model.

CMAQ (pronounced “see mack”), a state-of-the-science tool for air quality modeling, was first publically released in 1998 by the EPA, and it now boasts a worldwide community of more than 3,700 users in 95 countries. CMAQ has been used by the EPA and by state environmental agencies to support air quality policy decisions. Nations around the world use CMAQ to study air pollution issues and create air quality management strategies. CMAQ provides daily ozone forecast guidance issued by the National Weather Service. The CMAQ user community spectrum spans academia, government, and private industry. CMAQ is one of the most widely respected modeling tools of its genre.

This month, EPA is releasing CMAQ 5.0. Major updates to CMAQ, like this, occur about every three years. CMAQ 5.0 incorporates the latest developments in air quality science, and it can be used to examine the interactions between air quality and climate. One of the biggest advances in CMAQ 5.0 is a comprehensive and synchronized coupling of meteorology and air chemistry to more accurately simulate the feedbacks between weather and air pollution.

This month, EPA also celebrates the 10th anniversary of its partnership with the Community Modeling and Analysis System (CMAS) Center. CMAS has been the conduit for public releases of CMAQ, and they have been instrumental in brokering international scientific contributions to CMAQ. CMAS has provided training and online support for the CMAQ community, and they host an annual workshop dedicated to exchanging the most updated scientific findings. This year’s workshop takes place October 24-26, and more than 250 participants have registered.

CMAQ just completed the half-marathon (measured in years, not miles). With a strong team at the EPA and a diverse and growing community of international collaborators, CMAQ will be running the race for many years to come!

About the author: Tanya Otte, a research physical scientist, has worked at EPA in atmospheric modeling and analysis since 1998.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday: EPA Scientists Supporting the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) of Education

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Jing Zhang

As a kid, science class was always a treasure trove of exciting experiments and new activities. Science activities, from blowing up balloons to learn about air to displacing water to learn about matter, were always a welcomed break from the usual lectures and reading assignments. As an impressionable young student, I was easily captivated and inspired in science class, mostly due to the efforts of my teachers to create interesting and engaging science lessons.

Naturally, I was delighted to find out that EPA offers Educational Outreach Workshops at the Agency’s campus in Research Triangle Park, NC where staff scientists can learn how to share their work in the classroom. The workshop, organized by EPA’s Kelly Leovic featured a walk-through of hands-on activities and games, with opportunities to partake in the fun. The activities engage students in learning a wide range of topics related to environmental science, including water, air, climate change, animal behavior, rocks and soils, and ecology. Each activity has materials and kits available for EPA scientists to borrow for outreach events.

I was pleasantly surprised at how many EPA scientists take time out of their full schedules in order to participate in educational outreach. From judging science fairs to working at career fair booths to giving guest presentations in classrooms, the scientists draw on their own enthusiasm and knowledge in order to inspire interest in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics).

The workshop participants with years of experience in outreach shared success stories as well as a few disaster stories with the participants who are new or less experienced. They also gave valuable advice on how to engage students of different age groups, ranging from kindergarten to high school and college students.

The Educational and STEM Outreach Program in RTP is very active in local communities. What started out years ago as a few scientists wanting to inspire interest in science in their own children’s classrooms has grown into a strong outreach effort by scientists from across EPA.

Due to the rapidly advancing world, inspiring students to be interested in STEM has become a top priority. It only takes one eye-opening experience to stir up curiosity about a subject. I’m glad that EPA scientists are devoting time to making that eye-opening opportunity available through their outreach efforts.

About the author: Jing Zhang is a student services contractor with the science communication team in EPA’s Office of Research and Development.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday: EPA Scientist Honored for Lifetime of Water Research

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Sarah Blau

It starts off sounding like a bad riddle: you cannot see it, smell it or taste it, and boiling it in water will not get rid of it. But then the riddle turns serious: it can cause high blood pressure, kidney problems, even cancer in adults, and can delay childhood physical or mental development. The answer to this grim riddle: lead.

I had heard about threats posed by lead from paint chips and dust in older houses, but not until recently was I aware lead is a common contaminant of drinking water. Although the main sources of exposure to lead are ingesting paint chips and inhaling dust, EPA estimates that 10 to 20 percent of human exposure to lead may come from lead in drinking water. As other sources of lead exposure are reduced, the percentage from drinking water is expected to rise.

Luckily, EPA scientists became aware of this health threat long before I did. In fact, EPA scientist Michael Schock recently received the American Water Works Association’s (AWWA) most prestigious research award, the A.P. Black Award, for his years of research contributing to the understanding, treatment, and prevention of lead in our nation’s drinking water.

Schock began his scientific studies in the field of geology with both Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in the subject. In 1978 he learned EPA was looking for a technician to work on lead problems in New England. Schock applied and got the job. In an AWWA interview he reflects on the team of scientists and staff involved in the drinking water research when he started out, “their enthusiasm and dedication to researching and solving health-related water quality problems was highly contagious.” Schock has now been with EPA for over 26 years.

The prevalence of lead in drinking water has to do with corrosion in the lead-containing materials that make up many water distribution systems. Researching problems with lead in drinking water allowed Schock to use his knowledge of geology in an unusual way. He told AWWA, “corrosion is really geochemistry with just different oxidants and a shorter timeframe.”

During his time with EPA, Schock researched and contributed to multiple publications on properties of lead corrosion as well as how to holistically treat and control water distribution systems suffering from the corrosion of lead, copper and other materials.

When asked about the importance of his research, Schock told AWWA, “I think the biggest reward is knowing we have provided insight that enables a health problem to be solved and future problems to be anticipated and prevented.” Now that’s a much better answer to the lead riddle.

About the author:  Sarah Blau is a student services contractor working with EPA’s Science Communication Team.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Science Wednesday: EPA Risk Assessments, the Best Possible Science

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Paul T. Anastas, Ph.D.

A dedicated team of scientists in EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) program works to assess the hazards that chemicals pose to human health. The assessments they produce, known as IRIS assessments, are not regulations. However, the information they contain is an important basis for regulatory decisions that impact the health of all Americans.

The importance of this hazard information—such as whether or not a chemical is likely carcinogenic—cannot be overstated.
Because some assessments focus on chemicals that are widely used in industry, members of the regulated community, environmental groups, the media, and the public have shown keen interest in the IRIS program. Their interest is legitimate. All Americans should be armed with the best possible scientific information on chemical hazards and feel confident that EPA is striving for continuous improvement.

EPA also solicits feedback on draft IRIS assessments from independent scientific experts. While their feedback has been largely positive, when issues are identified, we act to address them. This is precisely the reason EPA submits draft assessments for independent review. This means the scientific process is working.

This summer, EPA announced a set of improvements to the IRIS program in direct response to recommendations from the National Academies of Science and other independent experts. These changes make IRIS assessments clearer, more concise, and make our methods and scientific assumptions more transparent to readers. We have already begun to phase-in these changes to assessments in the IRIS pipeline.

Of the 50 chemicals currently in the IRIS pipeline, several are exceedingly complex. For example, the IRIS assessment of trichloroethylene (TCE), a widely used industrial solvent, has been under development for more than a decade. The assessment is of high interest because of its potential implications for industry and public health. After extensive independent review, it has been determined that any issues have been adequately addressed.

The TCE IRIS assessment is being released today. It concludes that TCE is carcinogenic to people and poses a human health hazard to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing fetus. This information will be useful to communities, businesses, and government leaders across the country as they make important decisions that impact human health and the environment.

While we know that the goal of perfection is impossible, we will continue to strive for it. We will continue to release IRIS assessments that are scientifically strong. We will continue to pursue the best science with integrity and a mission to protect the health of the American people.

About the author: Paul T. Anastas, Ph.D. is the assistant administrator for EPA’s Office of Research and Development and the science advisor to the Agency.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.