By Amber Tucker
Last week I briefly gave an introduction about mercury in the environment, and let you know that I would follow it up with details from the September 12th, Mercury in the Environment Symposium held at Haskell Indian Nations University in Lawrence, KS. Hosted by Haskell, with support from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), US EPA Region 7, and the Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas, the symposium served as a gathering of minds from Tribal, Federal, and undergrad Haskell students, all ready to learn and discuss the effects of mercurial deposition and monitoring in our environment.
We heard from David Gay, coordinator for the NADP, about the efforts of his agency to provide measurements of both depositional and atmospheric mercury across the country. Their two programs, the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), and the Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet), collaborate with several partners from federal and state agencies, Tribal Nations, universities and research institutions as well as private organizations and businesses, to monitor and collect data and provide high quality measurements to support an array of objectives. This national monitoring network measures total mercury in one-week precipitation samples at 80 sites across the United States. The objective of the MDN is to develop a national database of weekly concentrations of total mercury in precipitation and the seasonal and annual flux of total mercury in wet deposition. The data will be used to develop information on spatial and seasonal trends in mercury deposited to surface waters, forested watersheds, and other sensitive receptors.
The Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is one of NADP’s members, and currently operates monitoring stations for the MDN. Wet deposition uses air monitoring stations to collect data using weekly samples or samples collected daily within 24 hours of the start of precipitation. All MDN samples are sent to the Mercury Analytical Laboratory (HAL), which analyzes all forms of mercury in a single measurement and reports this as total mercury concentrations. They also operate stations to catch and measure litterfall. The litterfall monitoring initiative offers a way for a NADP site sponsor to get measurements to approximate a large part of the mercury dry deposition in a forest landscape. These samples are analyzed for the presence and concentration of mercury and methylmercury.
We heard from EPA R7 staff on additional monitoring methods, one of which is the Regional Ambient Fish Tissue (RAFT) Program. Many of the Region 7 Tribes use data from fish tissue samples to determine the mercury content in their local waterways. This is valuable information not only from an environmentally conscious standpoint, but this data also allows them to determine whether or not fish consumption advisories need to be in effect.
As part of the symposium, Tej Atili from the Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas Environmental Department hosted a fish tissue sampling demonstration. Literally hands-on, this demo allowed attendees to go through the process of clearing a small area in the dorsal area of scales, extracting samples using an 8 millimeter biopsy punch, and inserting the sample into a sterile scintillation vial. While our tissue donor was of the frozen fillet variety, Tej walked us through what the “live” process entails and the importance of following proper procedures and protocol in sampling. He also sprung a surprise math lesson on us; how to calculate the appropriate daily consumption rate of fish based on body weight. While my calculations were all wrong (math is NOT a strong suit of mine), the equation that goes into it is actually quite interesting. If I’m ever in a bind and need to know how much tuna I can eat though, I’m going to need some help; surely there’s an app for that!
Spending a day at my alma mater learning about mercury and sampling methods was a blast, and based on the turnout and positive feedback on this symposium, I hope they continue to hold it in the future, and maybe expand it. In the meantime, if you’re interested in learning more about mercury monitoring and effects, you can let your fingers do the walking and head over to EPA’s Mercury Page. Also see NADP’s Mercury Deposition Network Page. Until next time, I bid you adieu and wish you better fish-consumption calculation skills than I possess. Seriously though, there’s gotta be an app for that!
Amber Tucker is an Environmental Scientist who serves as a NEPA reviewer for EPA Region 7. She is a graduate of Haskell University and serves as Region 7′s Special Emphasis Program Manager for Native American Employment Programs.