A Bountiful Harvest

by Carol Petrow

IMGP0032Thanksgiving is a time to reflect on nature’s bounty … and wetlands are among the nature’s most productive ecosystems.  The productivity of wetlands is comparable to coral reefs and rain forests and can be thought of as a “biological supermarket.”  They provide great volumes of food that attract and support a wide variety of species ranging from microbes to mollusks to man.

Scientists refer to the dynamic relationships among organisms in the wetland environment as food webs that involve many species of plants and animals.  Here’s how they work:

Dead plants break down in water resulting in small particles of rich organic material called “detritus.”  Detritus feeds many small aquatic insects, shellfish and small fish that are food for larger predatory fish, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals.

Dining on pollen and nectar from flowers, fruits such as elderberries, blueberries, and cranberries, seeds, leaves, twigs, stems, bark, and roots of wetland plants, wildlife get needed carbohydrates, protein, fats, and vitamins in their diets.

Man is among the species that “shop” in wetlands for foodstuffs. Wetland ecosystems are key contributors to a broad range of wild and cultivated food for people world-wide. Wetlands and their resources, supply us with fish and shellfish, leafy vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, rice, and more.

IMGP0175Can you imagine “shopping” in wetlands for your Thanksgiving dinner?  We’re talking about a large selection of organic, healthy, locally grown foods.  It might not be the traditional fixings but it would be a meal to remember and give thanks for.  I’m thinking paella made with wild rice, fish and shellfish, mushrooms, a salad of leafy greens tossed with seeds and flower buds, and for dessert – a dish of baked mixed berries topped with nuts and sweetened with syrup made from the sap of red maples.

Healthy wetlands provide good quality food to support healthy communities. That productivity depends on sustaining healthy coastal and inland wetlands and ecosystems.  To keep the rich harvest coming, we need to protect and restore our nation’s wetlands.

 

About the author: Carol Petrow is the Acting Team Leader of the Wetlands Science Team in the Environmental Assessment and Innovation Division, Office of Monitoring and Assessment.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

All Hands Needed to Control Nutrient Pollution

by Tom Damm

blue-green-algaeWhen a harmful algal bloom in western Lake Erie contaminated the Toledo area water supply two years ago, my first thoughts turned to my niece Jen and her family.

They were among the hundreds of thousands warned not to drink their water, cook with it, give it to their pets or ingest it any way after tests found the toxin, microcystin, above the standard for consumption.

Jen found out about the water ban when she turned on the TV at around 8 a.m.  By then, there were scenes of panicky residents buying out cases of water from store shelves.

Two days later the water was declared safe to drink again.  But the weekend incident served as a wake-up call for many, including members of the Toledo Rotary Club.

The 400-member club – the world’s 11th largest – is putting its considerable people power and resources behind the challenge of preventing another nutrient-driven outbreak of blue-green algae in the lake.

The club invited EPA to its signature event – the second annual Rotary Lake Erie Watershed Conference – to explain to the 300 attendees how excess nutrients – nitrogen and phosphorus – are being reduced in the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

Jon Capacasa, our EPA Mid-Atlantic Region Water Protection Division director, relayed the history and progress of the Bay partnership, emphasizing the importance of sound science and collaboration.

He reminded them that they’re not alone – that nutrient pollution is a national problem, a threat to public health, aquatic life and the economy, and to solve it we need “all hands on deck,” including civic groups.

Jon offered some websites where Rotarians and others could find projects and activities to get involved, including watershed projects, volunteer water quality monitoring, and outreach campaigns.

All 50 states have reported harmful algal blooms, and recent research suggests the problem is getting worse as a result of climate change.

Check out this site for more information and for additional ways to help reduce nutrient pollution in your area.


About the Author
: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Avoiding Holiday ‘Commode’tion

by Tom Damm

septicsmart 3The Halloween costumes weren’t that frightening in our neighborhood this week.  An astronaut, a soccer player, even a happy jack-o-lantern.   Nothing to give me pause in opening the door.

But here’s a truly scary vision as we shift into the main holiday season – a houseful of guests and a malfunctioning septic system.  That’ll generate a scream or two.

One of every five households in the U.S. depends on septic systems to treat wastewater.  If not properly maintained, the systems can overflow or backup, creating far worse problems for you and your guests than spoiling the aroma of the roasted turkey.

Not to worry, though.   EPA has some SepticSmart tips to ensure that your system can handle the everyday and extra loads.

  • Run the dishwasher and washing machine only when full.  Fix plumbing leaks and install faucet aerators and water efficient products.  Too much water use at once can overload your system, particularly if it hasn’t been pumped in the last couple of years.
  • Avoid pouring fats, grease and solids down the drain, which can clog your system, or toxic material, which can kill the organisms that digest and treat waste.
  • Have your septic system inspected every three years by a licensed contractor and have the tank pumped when necessary, generally every three to five years.
  • Only put items in the drain or toilet that belong there to avoid clogging or damaging your system.
  • Remind guests not to park or drive on your system’s drainfield because the vehicle weight could damage buried pipes or disrupt underground flow causing system backups and floods.

A malfunctioning system can kill native plants and fish and shellfish, as well as reduce property values and potentially pose a legal liability.  A system that’s properly maintained helps keep your family’s drinking water clean and reduces the risk of contaminating local waters.

So, as you’re preparing for company by cleaning those areas that don’t get regular attention, be sure to keep your septic system in mind.  It’ll help keep your holiday conversation focused on more pleasant subjects.

 

About the Author: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Shower Yourself with Savings

by Tom Damm

banner_showerbetter-2015A “Navy shower” is quite efficient.  Get wet, turn off the water, lather up, rinse off and get out.  All done in a few minutes.

My first experience with such a shower was in a trailer near New Orleans during EPA’s response to Hurricane Katrina.  I learned how to get clean in a hurry when the scarce hot water available in our compound ran out by the time I showered each morning.

I’ve since taken more comfortable, but similarly speedy showers at home.  It makes sense since EPA estimates that shortening your shower by even one minute can save 550 gallons of water per year.

Showering is one of the leading ways we use water in the home, accounting for nearly 17 percent of residential indoor water use.

The City of Charlottesville, Virginia – a two-time EPA WaterSense national award winner for its water saving promotions – challenges its residents to take a five-minute shower, offering a free timer and suggesting they create a five-minute playlist and use a 2-in-1 shampoo-conditioner combination.

But one of the main suggestions from EPA and Charlottesville to save water, energy and money is to replace your old showerhead with a WaterSense labeled model.  Charlottesville offers them at no cost to its residents.

In just one year, a WaterSense showerhead can save the average family nearly 3,000 gallons of water and save enough electricity to power their home for 13 days.  That’s a savings of more than $70 in energy and water costs.

October has been designated Shower Better Month by EPA’s WaterSense program.  Here’s a link for more ways to save water throughout your home – and to avoid that knock on the door to speed it up in the shower.

 

About the Author: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

It’s RAINing Data in the Ohio River Basin

by Catherine Magliocchetti

RAIN2Want to know about water quality in the Ohio River Basin?  The information is only a few clicks away.

My colleagues and I recently traveled to Pittsburgh to learn more about the River Alert Information Network (RAIN) and its interactive website that tracks the condition of the basin’s six mighty rivers and displays that information in near real time. The website’s monitoring map has a wealth of river data available and accessible to the public.

Users can provide overlay tools like watershed boundaries, rivers, and U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) sites that help put into context the data provided at each monitoring location.  Many of the map overlays provide additional links to pertinent sites maintained by EPA and/or USGS, so associated data can be easily accessed.

Taking the pulse of these rivers is a big deal since Southwestern Pennsylvania and Northern West Virginia are home to about two million residents, living and relying upon the Ohio River Basin for drinking water, recreation, and commercial and industrial use.  In particular, many drinking water supplies draw source water from the Allegheny, Monongahela, Youghiogheny, Shenango, Beaver and Ohio rivers.

RAIN is a source water protection organization, whose goal is to better ensure the protection of public health and access to quality drinking water across this vast watershed.  In addition to community outreach and education, RAIN’s primary focus is to continuously monitor water quality and post data on-line.

RAIN was developed as a voluntary effort through collaboration among 33 area water systems, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and the California University of Pennsylvania, all of whom recognized the importance of protecting the tributaries of the Ohio River.

Visit RAIN’s website to check on your favorite river in the Ohio basin.

 

About the Author:  Catherine Magliocchetti is a member of the Office of Drinking Water and Source Water Protection (SWP), with a focus on efforts in West Virginia and with the River Action Information Network, and she is currently leads the Potomac Algae Project group.  Catherine and her family live along the Delaware River in Washington Crossing, PA.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Lessons for Students – and the Rest of Us

by Tom Damm

children's healthOctober is Children’s Health Month, an ideal time to check out EPA’s Student Curriculum: Recipes for Healthy Kids and a Healthy Environment.

This nine-lesson program is available to teachers to help students (ages 9-13) appreciate and explore the environments in which they live and play.  Each 45-minute lesson provides basic information on a particular topic and offers ways for students and their families to reduce their environmental risks.

So, you think you’re smarter than a 9-13 year old?  Here’s what you’re up against on water issues:

The “Keeping All of Our Waterways Clean“ lesson helps children understand the importance of water in their lives and describes the life cycle of freshwater.  It also discusses how to keep trash from getting in storm drains and polluting waterways.

After learning the lesson, students will be able to:

  • Define rainwater runoff, drainage pollution, freshwater, saltwater and potable;
  • Name three different types of waterways;
  • Explain three ways to stop drainage pollution; and
  • Explain how keeping our waterways clean benefits the entire community.

And then there’s the “Healthy Water Inside” lesson.  It focuses on water safety and conservation, and teaches how to avoid mold and mildew at home.

Our water wizards will be able to:

  • Define mold, mildew and fluoride;
  • List three ways to stop mold and mildew from growing;
  • Explain how water is treated; and
  • Explain some ways to conserve water at home.

Want to go to the head of the class?  Check out the materials in all nine lessons and test your knowledge on issues of concern to all of us – from climate change to household hazards.  And if you’re a scout leader or an instructor in another setting, use the lessons to help your kids become more environmentally savvy.

 

About the Author: Tom Damm has been with EPA since 2002 and now serves as communications coordinator for the region’s Water Protection Division.

 

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

What’s Green and Growing in the River?

by Jon Markovich

Wissahickon Creek, PA

Wissahickon Creek, Pennsylvania

The Mid-Atlantic Region has many great walking, biking, and hiking trails that meander through the woods and provide us with the chance to escape into the natural environment.  One of my favorite activities on a hike is to stop along the trail to check out a nearby river or stream.  It’s nice to relax and admire the view, listen as the water flows, and to see the different types of plants growing in and around the water.

Before becoming an environmental scientist, I wouldn’t have known that the extent and type of aquatic plants can indicate the health of a waterbody.  In our region there are many beneficial species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV).  SAV are rooted underwater plants that provide wildlife with food and habitat, and add oxygen to the water.  In fact, a positive sign in the Chesapeake Bay restoration efforts has been an increase in SAV. The more SAV, the better for the Bay.

Not so with another common type of aquatic growth – algae.  These are a large and diverse group of organisms that lack many typical characteristics of true plants.  Algae can grow on the bottom of a stream or float freely in the water.  While algae can be important to an aquatic ecosystem, too much can cause problems.

Excessive algal growth can negatively alter habitat and create low oxygen problems for aquatic life.  In addition, it can decrease water clarity for SAV, making it hard for them to get the sunlight they need to grow.  Some types of large algal blooms even pose a human health risk by producing toxics compounds.  Also in recent years, excess filamentous algae – long hair-like strands of algae growing on streambeds – has been a concern for potentially affecting recreation, such as fishing, boating, and swimming.  Specific effects could include tangled fishing lures, slippery rocks, and an overall unsightly appearance.

With several thousand different species of algae and SAV, it can be confusing to figure out what you see growing in a river or stream.  The Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin Commission (ICPRB) recently presented several tips to identify algae and SAV.  I spent some time hunched over a microscope to test these out, but with this handout they’ve created, you won’t need any scientific tools!

ICPRB is asking citizens in the Potomac basin to help by reporting areas where the water always seems green with algae.  You can share your observations using ICPRB’s new Water Reporter smartphone app which helps target local research efforts to study how excess algal growth affects aquatic life and the activities we like to do in the water.

Next time you’re out hiking, check out a local stream and see what types of aquatic plants are growing.  Can you answer the question “What’s green and growing in the river?”

 

About the Author: Jon Markovich joined EPA’s Water Protection Division in 2014 and works in the impaired waters and Total Maximum Daily Load programs. In his spare time, Jon enjoys hiking, kayaking and camping in the Mid-Atlantic Region’s many great state parks.

 

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Working to Make a Visible Difference in Newport News

Newport News Assistanceby Jonathan Essoka

Our months of planning paid off last week with an all-day forum that brought EPA together with a host of other government agencies and partners to address the revitalization needs of Newport News, Virginia.

Newport News is one of five communities in EPA’s Mid-Atlantic region receiving assistance under the Agency’s “Making a Visible Difference in Communities” (MVD) effort.

A room full of about 80 people engaged in finding solutions to the most pressing problems facing the city’s most overburdened neighborhoods – from air and toxics pollution to equitable development.

A series of panels offered best practice examples and resources, and a networking session gave members of the community a chance to meet one-on-one with federal, state and city agency representatives.

There was good energy throughout the day with practical and positive discussions on the opportunities and challenges, and on the need for the process to be inclusive and the community to be involved.

As EPA’s MVD coordinator in Newport News, I had the pleasure of working with the city, the Southeast CARE Coalition and our other partners to plan the forum.  I know we’re all glad that the weekly conference calls, regular emails, and last-minute agenda changes are behind us.

Now the real work begins.

The information we gathered will help our agencies and organizations build on the progress already being made in Newport News.  We assured the community that we weren’t just dropping in and leaving.  We’ll continue to fit in where it makes sense to help the city as a whole address its revitalization priorities.  For example, EPA is helping to bring green infrastructure to a city schoolyard to serve as a model for reducing stormwater pollution and preventing flooding.

At the forum, EPA Regional Administrator Shawn Garvin called for a coordinated response to the environmental and public health issues identified by the community.

Based on the turnout and the dialogue, we have momentum behind that charge.

 

About the author: Jonathan Essoka works in the Office of State and Watershed Partnerships in the Water Protection Division of EPA Region 3.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Think and Link Green

by Jeanna Henry

G3 webpage 4Have you heard the term “green street” and wondered what gives it that special designation?  Is your community interested in green technologies and sustainable practices?  If so, a new EPA website can help.

Launched last month, the Green Streets, Green Jobs, Green Towns (G3) website has information for community leaders, residents and professional service providers on the benefits of green streets in improving local waters, neighborhoods and job prospects.

Green streets have proven especially popular here in EPA’s Mid-Atlantic Region – from small towns like Etna, Pennsylvania, to big cities like Baltimore, Maryland.  The region’s Office of State and Watershed Partnerships created the national website to highlight green streets as an effective way to manage stormwater runoff.

The G3 website includes general information on how to plan, design, build and maintain green streets, photographs of green streets and a video on ways communities can reduce stormwater runoff and increase economic vitality through the use of green infrastructure practices.  Green streets can also help mitigate the impacts of climate change by controlling flooding, reducing heat from hard surfaces and saving energy.

The website identifies potential funding opportunities, such as the G3 Grant ProgramClean Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF), and Urban Waters Small Grants.

EPA and the Chesapeake Bay Trust, in partnership with the Maryland Department of Natural Resource, have awarded more than 90 G3 grants over the past six years, resulting in nearly $18 million in green projects and the construction of more than eight collective miles of green streets.

A number of those projects are featured in the G3 grants section of the website.

Check them out and see how your community can benefit from a green street.

 

About the author: Jeanna Henry joined EPA in 2000 as an Environmental Scientist. She currently works in the Water Protection Division focusing on stormwater management through the use of Green Infrastructure. Jeanna loves nothing more than spending time outdoors with family and friends hiking, kayaking or spending a day at the beach.

 

 

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.

Be Prepared

by Patti Kay Wisniewski

Preparedness logoSeptember is National Preparedness Month – a time to take basic steps to improve our resilience and readiness for natural disasters and other emergencies.

With the Atlantic hurricane season in full swing, we should all remember to plan with our families to be able to quickly and safely leave our homes when severe weather threatens.  We also take this time in September as a way to pay tribute to those who rush to the scenes of disasters like police and firefighters for their dedication to our safety and security.

How can you be ready?  Make a plan, inform your family and neighbors of your plans, test your plan, gather food, water and other supplies for the few days you may be out of your home, and don’t forget your pets.

You can also sign up for local alerts to keep current on weather situations; document valuables; share telephone numbers and keep your cell phone charged as severe weather approaches your area.  The www.Ready.gov website has resources to assist you further as you prepare.

EPA, working with local responders such as police, fire and haz-mat, as well as local water companies, continues to assist with preparedness efforts.  In the Mid-Atlantic region, EPA sponsors training and exercises to ensure that your water company is aware of how severe weather could impact their operations and necessary steps to improve resiliency.  These efforts ensure that there is water when the power goes out and that it remains safe for consumers to drink, cook and bathe.  Keeping the water flowing also ensures firefighters have water to fight fires triggered by lightning strikes.

Throughout the month of September, EPA will be sharing tips with local water companies to guide them in their preparedness efforts to keep your drinking water safe, no matter the weather.  Please consider doing your part to prepare yourself, your family and your pets.

 

About the author: Patti Kay Wisniewski has worked in the drinking water program for over 30 years covering such topics as emergency preparedness, consumer confidence reports, and the new electronic delivery option.

Editor's Note: The views expressed here are intended to explain EPA policy. They do not change anyone's rights or obligations. You may share this post. However, please do not change the title or the content, or remove EPA’s identity as the author. If you do make substantive changes, please do not attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

EPA's official web site is www.epa.gov. Some links on this page may redirect users from the EPA website to specific content on a non-EPA, third-party site. In doing so, EPA is directing you only to the specific content referenced at the time of publication, not to any other content that may appear on the same webpage or elsewhere on the third-party site, or be added at a later date.

EPA is providing this link for informational purposes only. EPA cannot attest to the accuracy of non-EPA information provided by any third-party sites or any other linked site. EPA does not endorse any non-government websites, companies, internet applications or any policies or information expressed therein.