Monthly Archives: December 2010

Your Stories:EPA@40

By Sharon Jaffess

As a child in 1970, I played along the shores of Jamaica Bay in Far Rockaway, New York and collected water samples to look at under my microscope. I wrote a letter to EPA and was excited to receive a response. Just like Derek Jeter knew he wanted to be a New York Yankee as a child, I knew I wanted to be an EPA scientist.

I started with the agency as a summer intern in NYC in 1985. Thinking about EPA@40, I’m proud of all the work we’ve done to clean up sites, but what mostly comes to mind are my relationships with people, the citizens, co-workers and collaborators I’ve met over the years.

I remember Mrs. L who lived next door to the Tabernacle Drum Dump Superfund site. I’d sample her tap water for safety testing, then help feed her pigs and buy her green eggs, which had a light green shell from a South American breed of hen. There was Christina P. from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), who helped EPA clean up many sites but passed away before we could acknowledge her important contributions. Lisa B. was one of my “Sisters of Sediment.” Along with Rick W., Eric S. and Jon B. at NJDEP, we were instrumental in forming the interagency partnership to clean up the Passaic River. I remember the Newark Junior High School students we took out on the Passaic River, who were so excited to go out on the boat and learn; and the people in Battery Park City, St. Tamminy Parish, Louisiana, and Marshall, Michigan, who were all so appreciative of our efforts to clean up their towns. And I recall the Coast Guard Ensigns who I woke up at 2:00 a.m. to help me retrieve a canine body out of the Hudson River at Ground Zero. Seeing how upset I was, they took me for a speed ride on their boat, supposedly to “ungunk” the engine. It was the first time I smiled in a month.

When I think of EPA@40, it is more than just about the clean up work — it is about the citizens and the close friends I’ve made. I’m also startled to realize how I’m still thinking about contaminated water. Forty years ago, I couldn’t do much about it. But, over the past twenty-five years, I have.

About the author:  One of Sharon’s dreams came true in 1985 when EPA’s New York office hired this University of Rochester trained geologist to clean up hazardous waste in NY and NJ. Sharon re-focused her attention to the equally important work for the citizens in the Great Lakes Region, graduated from the Partnership for Public Service’s Excellence in Government Leadership Program, and was recently charged to manage and lead the Superfund Division’s Site Assessment Program.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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The EPA Toxics Release Inventory National Analysis: So What’s In Your Neighborhood?

By Kara Koehrn

Have you ever wondered what’s coming out of that factory stack you pass on the way home, or whether there are chemicals being cover_national_analysis_200released upstream from your favorite fishing spot? If so, maybe I can help you. I work with the EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), which was designed to help the public answer questions just like these.

Before I came to EPA I knew very little about TRI. However, without realizing it, I had already read about chemical releases in news articles and scientific papers that used numbers from the TRI public database of chemical releases to the environment. I have since learned that TRI is a database with detailed information on over 600 toxic chemicals from over 20,000 U.S. facilities nationwide. You and I have access to information about disposal or other releases of chemicals into the environment as well as information about how facilities manage chemicals through recycling, energy recovery and treatment!

Over the past several months I have been involved in the preparation of the 2009 TRI National Analysis, which is EPA’s annual interpretation of TRI data. I was very excited to work on this project because TRI is such a rich database. It has a seemingly endless number of ways to slice the data and reveal national and local trends of releases to the environment including by chemical, geographic region, parent company, industry sector, etc.

This year I am especially eager for the release of the National Analysis because we have incorporated some exciting new features. It now includes analyses specific to 13 of the most populous urban areas in the country. Would you like to know about toxic chemical releases in the Denver area? What about Miami? How do they compare? The National Analysis also includes analyses for tribal lands and ecosystems like the Chesapeake Bay, Great Lakes and Gulf of Mexico. Take a look!

But EPA employees aren’t the only ones who can conduct analyses like these. Any member of the public can look up what chemicals are being released in an area. My favorite tool to use for quick information about chemical releases in my zip code is myRTK, which I can access on my smart phone. But if I am at home and want to see long-term trends of TRI releases for an area I use TRI Explorer or TRI.NET. Want to try? Follow this link to TRI’s tools.

I hope you take a look at the National Analysis and maybe even try a few of our analysis tools to see what chemicals are being released into your neighborhood. After all, it’s your right to know.

About the author: Kara Koehrn joined EPA’s Office of Environment Information in Washington DC in 2009 and is the project leader for the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) National Analysis. She recently started a potted vegetable garden at her row house apartment in the city to grow fresh food locally without pesticides.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Changing Behaviors

By Lina Younes

At the beginning of the year, the District Bag Law went into effect in Washington, DC which required businesses that sell food or alcohol to charge consumers 5 cents for each disposable paper or plastic carryout bag. Of those revenues, 3-4 cents were destined for a new Anacostia River Protection Fund. The District of Columbia’s Department of the Environment (DDOE) has been administering the fund and has conducted a public awareness campaign to reduce litter in Washington, DC and clean up the river.

It’s interesting to note that at the beginning of the year many people were complaining about this new tax. Personally, while I support cleaning our waterways, I opted for skipping the bag on numerous occasions in DC especially for small purchases because I didn’t want to pay the 5 cents. So, now, nearly a year later, I was very curious to see the outcomes of the Bag Law. I contacted the DC Department of the Environment and would like to share the information with you.

Anecdotal evidence during the first year since this law went into effect points to a 50% reduction in bag usage in DC stores. Furthermore, non-profits, such as the Alice Ferguson Foundation, have reported a 60% reduction in the number of plastic bags collected at their watershed wide clean-up days. Furthermore, DDOE has collected $1,528,195.84 during the first three quarters of the year primarily through the 5 cent fee on disposable bags. According to DDOE, as DC residents become more aware of the new law, the need for public outreach and reusable bag giveaways will diminish. As the program moves to its second phase, funding will be destined to other infrastructure efforts, such as the design and installation of water quality structures that will remove trash and sediment from stormwater runoff, constructing green roofs and other water quality issues. The law includes other enforcement elements to ensure businesses are complying with the law.

Whether people have decided to use more reusable carryout bags to save the environment or to avoid paying the 5 cent fee is hard to tell. Nonetheless, the result has been positive in the sense that consumers are changing their behavior and benefitting water quality. Isn’t that what it’s all about?

About the author: Lina Younes has been working for EPA since 2002 and chairs EPA’s Multilingual Communications Task Force. Prior to joining EPA, she was the Washington bureau chief for two Puerto Rican newspapers and she has worked for several government agencies.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Cambios de comportamiento

Por Lina Younes

Al inicio de este año, entró en vigor la Ley del Distrito sobre las Bolsas en Washington, DC que requiere a todos los negocios que venden alimentos o bebidas alcohólicas a cobrar a los consumidores 5 centavos por cada bolsa desechable de papel o plástico que le dan a los consumidores al momento de la compra. De esos réditos, de 3 a 4 centavos estaban destinados para un nuevo Fondo para la Protección del Río Anacostia. El Departamento del Medio Ambiente del Distrito de Columbia (DDOE, por sus siglas en inglés) ha estado administrando el fondo y ha realizado una campaña de concienciación pública para reducir los desperdicios en Washington, DC y limpiar el río.

Es interesante destacar que al inicio del año, mucha gente se quejaba del nuevo impuesto. Personalmente, yo apoyo la limpieza de nuestras vías acuáticas y opté por no usar las bolsas desechables en numerosas ocasiones en DC para pequeñas compras porque simplemente no quería pagar los 5 centavos. Ahora, casi un año más tarde, tenía curiosidad en saber los resultados de la Ley de Bolsas. Me comuniqué con el Departamento del Medio Ambiente y quisiera compartir la información con ustedes.

Según las anécdotas públicas durante el primer año desde que la legislación entrara en vigor, el DDOE indicó que el uso de bosas desechables en tiendas de Washington, DC ha bajado por un 50 por ciento. Además, organizaciones sin fines de lucro como la Fundación Alice Ferguson han reportado una reducción del 60% en el número de bolsas plásticas recogidas durante los días de limpieza en las cuencas fluviales de la ciudad. Ademas, DDOE recaudó $1,528,195.84 durante los primeros tres trimestres del año mayormente del impuesto de 5 centavos proveniente de las bolsas desechables. Según el DDOE, a medida de que los residentes de la ciudad estaban más conscientes de la nueva ley, la necesidad de efectuar campañas de concienciación y ofrecer las bolsas reutilizables disminuirán. A medida que el programa entra en la segunda fase, el financiamiento será destinado para otros esfuerzos de infraestructura tales como el diseño e instalación de estructuras de calidad de agua que removerán la basura y sedimento de las escorrentías fluviales, la construcción de techos verdes y otros asuntos de calidad de agua. La ley incluye otros elementos para asegurar que los negocios están cumpliendo con la ley.

Independientemente de si las personas han decidido usar más bolsas reutilizables para proteger el medio ambiente o para dejar de pagar los 5 centavos es difícil determinar. No obstante, el resultado ha sido positivo en el sentido de que los consumidores están cambiando su comportamiento y beneficiando la calidad del agua. ¿Acaso no se trata de eso mismo? ¿Acaso ese no era el propósito de la legislación? Nos encantaría escuchar su opinión sobre el tema.

Sobre la autor: Lina M. F. Younes ha trabajado en la EPA desde el 2002 y está a cargo del Grupo de Trabajo sobre Comunicaciones Multilingües. Como periodista, dirigió la oficina en Washington de dos periódicos puertorriqueños y ha laborado en varias agencias gubernamentales.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Why Are There Trees in This Parking Lot Instead of More Parking Spots?

Do you ever drive to the store only to find you can’t find a spot to park in?  It’s bad enough that prime parking spots are taken up by Cart Corrals or car-share companies—but now more new parking lots are being designed with planted sidewalk areas in place of more parking spots.  Yeah, the trees are nice, cleaning up the air and all that, and the shrubs and flowers are pretty, but what else are they good for?  A lot, actually, in terms of stormwater management.

You know how you walk through a parking lot in the rain and the water either pools into the only convenient areas to walk safely through said parking lot, or there’s hardly any water on the ground anywhere?  An incorrectly graded parking lot allows the water to pool, while a correctly graded parking lot will drain the water right away.  In that correctly graded parking lot, the water drains right into the storm drain—and discharges directly without treatment to local waters.  While water is running though the parking lot, it picks up dirt, trash, and other pollutants, including motor oil, antifreeze, and air conditioner condensate.  These pollutants also go into the local waters. 

One way to tackle this stormwater problem is to design new parking lots with planting areas.  If you’re working with an existing parking lot, you can do something called “retrofitting.”  Retrofitting is the practice of upgrading an existing area using new technologies that were not available when the area was initially developed.  If a parking lot is being redone, or a township is looking for ways to decrease the amount of impervious surfaces in their area, planting beds are a great way to reduce impervious surfaces and increase stormwater infiltration, retention, and evaporation. 

Choosing certain kinds of plants and or trees will not only promote infiltration of water into soil, but the plants will also hold water on their leaves to then evaporate back into the atmosphere at a later time, keeping water off the ground in the first place.  Although planting beds have to be watered when precipitation events do not occur, the beds are oftentimes mulched, which means more water retention and less watering in the interim.  And not to make light of the litter problem, but planting beds and trees also help catch rough trash that travels in the wind.  Trash captured by these planting beds doesn’t end up in the streams of water that enter storm drains, and the beds are easy to clean up and remove the trash from the environment. 

You can also retrofit at home.  If you are lucky enough to have a driveway, the next time it has to be redone, think about tearing it up and putting a pervious surface down. Pervious surfaces are those that allow infiltration of stormwater, in contrast to impervious surfaces which promote storm water runoff. There are lots of pervious options to choose from, including vegetation (yes, vegetation!), paving blocks, bricks, permeable clay, crushed organic matter, and aggregate/gravel (which can be made from recycled asphalt—i.e., the pavement you just tore up).  All of these materials reduce the amount of water that runs into storm drains and increases infiltration—which means less pollution and a cleaner environment.

Do you know of any examples of retrofitting in your area?  Have you retrofitted your driveway without even knowing it?  Are there any volunteer opportunities out there to help retrofit storm basins in your community?  If so, let us know!  We’d love to hear from you.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Science Wednesday: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math; It’s for Everyone

Each week we write about the science behind environmental protection. Previous Science Wednesdays.

By Caitlin Haworth (Caitlin is student at J.E.B. Stuart High School.)

Dr. Kevin Teichman, the Deputy Assistant Administrator for Science in EPA’s Office of Research and Development, was part of the Nifty Fifty Program [editor’s note: The Nifty Fifty Program was part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival events] that brought top scientists to DC-area schools to get students interested and concerned about the future of engineering and science.

During Dr. Teichman’s visit to J.E.B. Stuart High School, not many students knew what to expect. Within the first few moments of the speech, however, he had everyone’s attention. The way he compared his high school years to those of students now was truly amazing.

Between 1966 and 1970 (Dr. Teichman’s high school years), a 1963 Ford Galaxy consumed leaded gas at about 28 cents per gallon. Now, the average cost of unleaded gas in the U.S. is $2.73, almost 10 times the price 47 years ago. On average, a 1963 Ford Galaxy got about 10 miles per gallon (mpg). Today, Dr. Teichman’s gas-electric hybrid car gets about 57 mpg, which far surpasses the average U.S. mpg at 22.6 mpg.

All of this just goes to show how much the world is growing year by year, generation by generation.

In Dr. Teichman’s generation, discoveries made in the science community led to many laws and regulations that changed the world. In 1970, the Environmental Protection Agency was created. In the same year the Clean Air Act was passed, setting boundaries on air pollutants. Two years later, EPA removed lead from gas. This one task decreased lead counts in the air by 98%.

Finally, in 1993 EPA concluded that secondhand-smoke can cause cancer and respiratory problems in children and the elderly. As Dr. Teichman mentioned, in the early 90’s, secondhand-smoke was the cause for approximately 3,000 deaths per year.

As the previous generations continue to change the world, they leave behind more challenges for the generation of today’s students. Among these challenges are global climate change, environmental justice, rises in autism, green chemistry and renewable energy. Currently the science world is facing challenges with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Many people are coming together to clean up the mess and ensure that it will not happen again.

As Dr. Teichman concluded, “you don’t succeed overnight.” Everyone can work together to change the world and that is just what the science community does daily.

About the author: Caitlin Haworth is a student at J.E.B. Stuart High School.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

Finding the Time

By Kristen Conroy

I continue to be amazed by students who have the passion, leadership, and dedication to successfully juggle their time at school and at home and, also create and manage phenomenal environmental projects.

Heidi Keller, age 19, of Royalton, Vermont is a perfect example of a very busy teen. Heidi founded a free magazine, Regeneration, which educates residents in her rural Vermont town and the surrounding area about important environmental and humanitarian issues. A member of Change the World Kids (CTWK), a local group of youth activists, Heidi began the magazine as a way to promote an ecologically and socially responsible lifestyle – especially for the next generation ­– and to raise funding for CTWK’s service efforts around the world. Heidi designed the 24-page magazine and recruited a team of teens to write articles for it. Determined to provide her publication free of charge so that everyone could access it, she launched an extensive ad sales campaign to cover production costs. The campaign proved wildly successful, enabling her to print 3,000 copies of each issue, three times per year, delivered to twelve surrounding towns. Heidi directs 100% of the magazine’s profits – over $12,000 so far – to local CTWK service efforts, as well as to its projects in places such as Africa, Costa Rica, and Haiti.

I find it truly admirable and inspiring that Heidi, along with so many other young people, is committed and active in keeping the Earth healthy. The best part is that they are all so willing and excited to share their passion and knowledge with everyone and anyone. With this type of enthusiasm and determination, the future of the environment is already looking a little brighter.

For more information on CTWK please visit

About the author: Kristen Conroy has been with EPA nearly 20 years and is the Environmental Education Coordinator for Region 1 in Boston, Massachusetts.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

My Right-to-Know: Know on the Go

By Pam Russell

Imagine riding along on a sunny day with your window down and suddenly become aware of a nasty smell coming from a industrial plant along the highway. What kind of manufacturing process would result in such a bad smell? What kinds of chemicals are being spewed out and what could that mean to you and your health? What if you could consult your mobile phone to find out more? No, you don’t need to call the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). You can learn a lot from EPA’s mobile website, MyRTK (as in, Right to Know), right from your handy web-enabled mobile phone or device.

Take a minute right now so that you will be ready when you see something you want to check. Click on the “apps “tab of EPA’s Mobile home page and select “MyRTK” or you can point your browser to http://m.epa.gov/myrtk. If your device has a GIS chip, click on the map tab to see your current location. If not, use the search feature to find facilities in your neighborhood.

What happens next? You’ll get a screen where you can type in any location. Maybe you’re on the New Jersey Turnpike just past Newark Airport. You could type in “Newark” or “Newark, NJ”. Within just a few clicks, you’ll be able to map and identify the surrounding facilities, the chemicals they handle and what’s in their releases, the potential health effects of those chemicals, and the compliance history of the facilities releasing the chemicals. While the information on facilities and chemical disposals or releases is drawn primarily from the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI data base), facilities with major Air, Water or RCRA (hazardous waste disposal) permits are also mapped. TRI facilities have blue map pins; all others have gray map pins. The information on compliance for all facilities is drawn from the Enforcement and Compliance History Online System.

If you want to report a possible violation or contact someone, click on the “What can I do?” at the bottom of the facility information page for links to EPA’s violation reporting page and information on how to contact state personnel or EPA’s Regional staff.

The MyRTK mobile application is an important advance in giving people access to information. With MyRTK, anyone can easily access information about the surrounding environment and learn what chemicals disposals and releases may mean to their local community.

Feedback on this new application is welcome. Use the “Feedback” button at the bottom of the Facility Information page to send us your comments.

About the author: Pam Russell is a scientist who works on the development of TRI tools in the Office of Environmental Information. She enjoys working on issues that make EPA’s science and information more accessible to the public.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.

IAQ Management: Essential for a Healthy School Environment

By Richard Middleton

During my tenure as the superintendent of the North East Independent School District in San Antonio, TX, I’ve had one goal in mind: provide the best, most nurturing learning environments to my students that I possibly can. And after 21 years of doing just that, I can tell you that this simply cannot be done without addressing indoor air quality (IAQ).

IAQ is one of those issues that can too easily be pushed aside and minimized by one of many other concerns that school districts have. But, in my opinion, it’s one of the most important things that a school district can do to ensure that their students are healthy, learning and thriving – and that the teachers are too! And just a few, simple changes in maintenance practices can make a huge difference.

For example, in our district we were bogged down by clutter. We had cluttered classrooms and storage areas full of items that were just collecting dust. It was so bad that our cleaning crews couldn’t even navigate through the classrooms around the clutter to properly clean! By simply eliminating the clutter and removing carpeting in classrooms and hallways and following EPA’s IAQ Tools for Schools Program guidance we improved IAQ and saw dramatic decreases in absenteeism and visits to the school nurse that have been sustained over time. It didn’t take much – but it did take making a commitment to improving IAQ and sticking to it.

And for those school districts out there that don’t feel like they have the expertise or resources to begin the process of developing an IAQ management plan, the IAQ Tools for Schools Program is there to help you every step of the way. It provides help with IAQ planning and management tools and connects you with peers and mentors so you can learn from each other’s experiences. In particular, I would encourage school districts at the beginning of the IAQ management process to attend the 2011 IAQ Tools for Schools National Symposium. It’s an invaluable resource and one of the best things that we did while developing our IAQ management program.

About the Author: Richard Middleton has devoted his career to the education and betterment of children. For the past 21 years he has served as the superintendent of the North East Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas. North East Independent School District is a recipient of EPA’s IAQ Tools for Schools National Excellence Award, which is presented to school districts that have shown exceptional commitment to good IAQ management in schools.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

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Are You Ready for a Snowstorm?

By Lina Younes

Luckily meteorologists in the Washington, DC metro area are not forecasting a major snowstorm in the near future. Nonetheless, as survivors of Snowgeddon 2010, my family and I are beginning to discuss preparations for the next major North American blizzard. We’re not all on the same page, though. While my youngest is praying for another major snow storm so that she can stay home and go sledding, my husband and I are debating the pro’s and con’s of investing in a snow blower and/or generator.

During the first day of Snowgeddon 2010, we were without electricity for 15 hours.  Energy Star windows kept the house comfortable for nearly 12 hours. When it started to get cold, we lit a fire and had great family time around the fireplace. While a cozy fireplace is still an option, we have to make sure that we burn firewood wisely.  Smoke produces a combination of gases and fine particles from burning wood. If you don’t use your wood-burning appliance properly, you can expose your family to serious health effects,
especially if they suffer from heart or respiratory diseases.

Personally, I am very concerned about the use of generators around the home. These gasoline-powered appliances can produce deadly concentrations of carbon monoxide in indoor air. Even though I know we have to operate generators outside to avoid carbon monoxide poisoning, the mere thought of the nearby exhaust scares me. Although we have a carbon monoxide detector, don’t want to have my family anywhere near that exhaust.

Now the other thing we’re also debating is the issue of the snow blower. It was not fun shoveling those tons of snow and we have the “battle scars” to prove it. Furthermore, gas-operated equipment like snowblowers and generators are also sources of air pollution, something we should all try to prevent. The only thing that is making me consider investing in this high ticket item is the probability that if we buy it, it won’t snow this year. We shall see. Are you preparing for snowgeddon 2011?

More about snow and ice

About the author: Lina Younes has been working for EPA since 2002 and chairs EPA’s Multilingual Communications Task Force. Prior to joining EPA, she was the Washington bureau chief for two Puerto Rican newspapers and she has worked for several government agencies.

Editor’s Note: The opinions expressed in Greenversations are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Editor's Note: The opinions expressed here are those of the author. They do not reflect EPA policy, endorsement, or action, and EPA does not verify the accuracy or science of the contents of the blog.

Please share this post. However, please don't change the title or the content. If you do make changes, don't attribute the edited title or content to EPA or the author.